"The Unlucky 11th"

"THE 11th ARMY CORPS ON JULY 1, 1863"

By D. Scott Hartwig


D. Scott Hartwig is a 1978 graduate of the University of Wyoming, Hartwig studied Civil War history under E. B. Long. He has been an interpretive Park Ranger at Gettysburg National Military Park since 1980. He is presently working on a study of the Maryland Campaign of 1862.

Francis Barlow Statue On 11th Corps Line, Barlow's Knoll

t was shortly after 10:30 a.m. when Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz's 3rd Division of the 11th Corps, passed Horner's Mill on the Taneytown Road. The division, along with the balance of the corps, was en route for Gettysburg from its June 30 bivouac at Emmitsburg, Maryland. To facilitate the movement of the corps, its commander, Maj. Gen. Oliver 0. Howard sent his 3rd and 2nd Divisions, respectively, by way of the Taneytown Road, and directed the 1st Division to follow the 1st Corps up the Emmitsburg Road. 1

The weather was cloudy and humid with occasional rain showers drenching the moving column of men and turning the dirt roads into slippery mud. The first several miles of the march were unremarkable-the sultry atmosphere preventing the sound of battle at Gettysburg from reaching the column-and the tedium was only broken momentarily when the head of the column crossed the Pennsylvania border. The Pennsylvania regiments of Schurz's Division beat their drums, dipped their colors, and raised a cheer for their native soil. Then the march resumed its steady, monotonous pace along the muddy road. 2

As Schurz's column cleared Horner's Mill, approximately 5-6 miles southeast of Gettysburg, he was met by a hard riding courier from corps commander Howard. The courier brought news that the 1st Corps was engaged at Gettysburg and that Schutz was to assume command of the corps and bring up his command with all haste. Schurz summoned 1st Brigade commander, Brig. Gen. Alexander Schimmelfennig, and turned command of the division over to the former Prussian Army officer with instructions to increase the pace to the "double-quick." Schurz spurred on to Gettysburg with his staff. As the cavalcade neared Gettysburg they encountered an increasing stream of civilian fugitives fleeing from Gettysburg. One terrified woman at tempted to stop Schurz, crying out, "Hard times at Gettysburg! They are shooting and killing! What will become of us!"3

Section One of Article
Section Two of Article
Section Three of Article