Works Cited

1. Chamberlain, "Address at the Dedication...," in Miller, Dedication of the Twentieth Maine Monuments... (UMO).

2. Law, "The Struggle for 'Round Top,"' in Johnson, Battles and Leaders..., Vol. 3, p. 322; Oates, The War ... ; "The Twentieth" in Lincoln County News, August 24, 188 1.

3. Oliver W. Norton to J.L. Chamberlain, May 8, 1901. In this letter, Norton, who acted as Vincent's bugler in the battle, wrote, "I went in my search for ambulances a mile beyond the house where Vincent was carried, and when I returned found Welch [colonel of the 16th Michigan] with the colors and the right wing of his regiment in the (Taneytown] road near the house where Vincent was. I was much surprised to see him there and asked him where Col. Rice and the rest of the brigade were. He told me that he did not know where they were; that the brigade had been driven off the hill and he had been separated from the other troops."

4. U.S. Congress, Medal of Honor Recipients, p. 401.

5. Oates, The War..., P. 245-7.

6. Oates, The War..., p. 586. After describing Shaaff, a prewar veteran of the regular army, as one of his best officers, Oates then criticized him. "When he could not capture the Union ordnance train he should have speedily rejoined the regiment in its assault on Little Round Top, where it was hotly engaged. Instead, he remained with his company concealed in the woods but three hundred yards distant."

7. The only position on the hill from which artillery could have fired against Meade's July 3 line is the ground that today surrounds the 155th Pennsylvania monument and on small flat spaces south of it toward the crest. The rest of the ground is either too slanted downward, does not offer open ground, or is occupied by boulders which would hinder the guns' recoil.

8. Oates, The War..., P. 244.

9. Oates, The War..., pp. 219, 227.

10. Figures include all three regiments which fought at the spur. The 20th Maine suffered approximately 32 percent casualties, the 15th Alabama roughly 37 percent, while the seven companies of the 47th lost around 40 percent; this last figure not exclusively inflicted by the 20th. The three regiments sent from Maine shortly after Gettysburg were nine months regiments.

11. 20th Maine Regimental Records and Rolls (MSA).

12. Powell, The Fifth Army Corps, pp. 530-53 1.

13. Tucker, High Tide at Gettysburg, p. 266.

14. Roberts, Trending Into Maine, pp. 42-5 1; Catton, Glory Road, pp. 292-93.

15. Roberts, Trending Into Maine, pp. 42-5 1.

16. Chamberlain to Fannie July 4 and 14, 1863 (LC); Prince in Dedication of the Twentieth...

17. Chamberlain's Official Report; Chamberlain, "Through Blood and Fire at Gettysburg."

18. Annual Report of the Battlefield Commission, 1902 (GNP). The process by which the road beds were constructed was called "Telferdizing." The altered nature of the monument boulders is clearly made evident by the photograph, taken in 1882, of the veterans choosing the site.

19. Chamberlain to Nicholson August 14, 1903, Photographs taken throughout the 1880s show no walls other than the one that Chamberlain protested and another running from the monument toward the left flank. The latter is now gone.

20. The opening chapter of U.S. Army Field Manual 22- 100 depicts parade-ground style maneuvering and assumes that Chamberlain had a consciousness of details which was simply impossible in Civil War battles. In a sense, Chamberlain was in direct violation of Vincent's orders to "Hold the ground at all hazards," when he charged from the very ground he was ordered to hold. This does not seem the best leadership trait to develop in young officers while Chamberlain's other actions most certainly do.