1 EmersonGifford Taylor, Gouverneur Kemble Warren, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932: Reprinted, The Riverside Press, 1988), 121-2.

2 Ibid., 122.

3 Edwin B. Coddington, The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study In Command (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1968: Revised and reprinted, Dayton, Ohio: Momingside, 1984), 332; Taylor, Warren, 122.

4 Taylor, Warren, 122.

5 OliverW. Norton, TheAttack and Defense of Little RoundTop: Gettysburg, July 2, 1863 (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1913; Reprint, Dayton, Ohio: Momingside, 1983), 263.

6 All three lieutenants were involved in supporting Warren getting troops on top of Little Round Top. Lieut. Chauncey Reese may not have been with Warren and the others when they initially went up the hill.

7 Washington A. Roebling as quoted in Harry W. Pfanz, Gettysburg: The Second Day (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1987), 201.

8 Warren to Capt. Porter Farley, July 13 1872, in Norton, Little Round Top, 309; Warren, as quoted in Taylor, Warren, 122-3.

9 James R. Wright, "Time on Little Round Top," The Gettysburg Magazine 2 (January 1990), 5 1; Norton, Little Round Top, 240.

10 United States War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies, 70 vols. in 128 parts (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880-1901) series 1, vol 27, Part 1, 202 (herein after cited as O.R.)

11 O.R., vol 27, Part 3, 488.

12 The exact location of the signal station on Little Round Top merits discussion. Many guides and authors assume that it is the rocks contiguous to the Signal Corps monument and that Warren made his observations several yards away on the rock where his statue was erected. In all probability, Hall and company were operating on the rack where the Warren monument stands today. It appears that the placement of Signal Corps Monument was influenced by the fact that the Warren monument was already on the rock. See E. B. Cope in the The U.S. Veteran Signal Corps Association, January 10, 1900. Signal Corps Papers, Gettysburg National Military Park Library.

13 Warren to Farley, July 13 1872, in Norton, Little Round Top, 309.

14 J. Willard Brown, Signal Corps, U.S.A. in the War of the Rebellion, New York, (Amo Press, 1974, 367; Norton, Little Round Top, 263).

15 E.M. Law, "The Struggle for 'Round Top"', in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel, 4 vols. (New York: The Century Company, 1887-8; Reprint, Secaucus, New Jersey: Castle, 1988), vol. 3, 320.

16 Coddington, Gettysburg, 740; Pfanz. Gettysburg: The Second Day, 506.

17 O.R., 27, Part I., 588-9.

18 Brown, Signal Corps, 367. According to Brown, Hall had a difficult time trying to convince Warren that there were Confederate troops opposite the position. "While the discussion was in progress the enemy opened on the station. The first shell burst close to the station, and the general, a moment later, was wounded in the neck. Captain Hall then exclaimed, "Now do you see them?"'

9" 19 Taylor, Warren, 127.

20 Warren to Farley, July 13 1872, in Norton, Little Round Top, 309-10; several popular accounts indicate that the signallers were leaving when Warren arrived at the station but Warren himself wrote that they attempted to leave later, after the station came under musket fire. After Warren left, the station was abandoned by Hall and Taylor because they deemed remaining there "impracticable". It was reoccupied later that evening by Capt. E.C. Pierce and Sgt. Luther Furst who wrote disparaging remarks about Hall's party in their reports and diaries.

21 Ibid., 309; There is conflicting information as to whether the messenger sent to Meade was Chauncey Reese. Based on evidence as to the whereabouts of the other two aides, it was probably Reese.

22 Pfanz, Gettysburg, The Second Day, 144-5.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid 25 O.R., 27, Part 1, 138; Richard A. Sauers, "Gettysburg: The Meade-Sickles Controversy," Civil WarHistory, vol. XXVI, No. 3. (Kent State University Press, 1980). 199-201. Both Sickles and his post-battle champion "Historicus" denied that Sickles refused to provide troops for Little Round Top. In fact, they both stated that Sykes delayed over an hour in giving Sickles the required support.

26 Norton, Little Round Top, 263.

27 Ibid., 263-264.

28 Pfanz, Gettysburg, The Second Day, 140.

29 Survivors' Association, History of the Corn Exchange Regiment, 118 Pennsylvania Volunteers, (Philadelphia: J.L. Smith Publisher, 1905), 240. Barnes' division had moved by the left flank, reversing the order of brigades. The historian of the Corn Exchange Regiment lamented that "Tilton's brigade lost the opportunity for the high distinction won by Vincent's in its magnificent repulse of the assaults on Little Round Top." Professor Jay Luvaas, of the U.S. Army War College, tells the story that one ofhis students tried to detail Tilton's activity on the 2nd ofjuly and concluded that Tilton did not aggressively pursue his oportunities. Perhaps it is fortunate that the order was reversed; Coddington, 400; Report ofthe Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, at the Third Session, Thirty-Seventh Congress, part I, 387-88. Sykes's responsiveness on July 2 has been the subject of considerable debate. Birney testified before Congress that Sykes delayed up to an hour to allow his men to rest and make coffee. Warren testified that some of the corps commanders 11 were not equal to their positions."

30 Norton, Little Round Top, 264.

31 Warren to Farley, July 13 1872, in Norton, Little Round Top, 310. Warren could not see Vincent's position on the southern end of Little Round Top because the ridge along the crest of the hill is higher at the center than at both ends. Also contributing is the fact that Vincent correctly placed his regiments on the "military crest" which is farther yet down the slope. Warren must have left the signal station in his search for additional troops before Vincent's brigade became engaged. 32 Norton, Little Round Top, 264.

33 Pfanz, Gettysburg, the Second Day, 223.

34 Taylor, Warren, 129.

35 Warren to Farley, July 24 1872, in Norton, Little Round Top, 311-312.

36 Benjamin F. Rittenhouse, "The Battle of Gettysburg as Seen From Little Round Top," The Gettysburg Papers, vol 11, (Dayton, Ohio: Momingside,1986), 521.

37 Porter Farley, Address at Dedication of Regimental Monument, September 17, 1889, in Oliver, W. Norton, "Strong Vincent and His Brigade at Gettysburg", The Gettysburg Papers, 513.

38 Warren to Farley, July 24, 1872 in Norton, Little Round Top, 312.

39 lbid,

40 Rittenhouse, "Gettysburg", The Gettysburg Papers, 522.

41 Warren to Farley, July 13 1872 in Norton, Little Round Top, 31 1.

42 John Gibbon, "The Council of War on the Second Day" in Johnson and Buel, Battles and Leaders, vol. 3, 313.

43 Norton, "Strong Vincent", The Gettysburg Papers, 505.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid., 506.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Joshua L. Chamberlain, "Through Blood and Fire at Gettysburg," (Hearst's Magazine [June 1913], reprinted in The Gettysburg Magazine 6 [January 19921, 48.)

49 O.R., 27, Part 1, 622-3.

50 Norton, Little Round Top, 265-6.

51 Chamberlain, "Through Blood and Fire", 50.

52 John Michael Gibney, "A Shadow Passing: The Tragic Story of Norval Welch and the Sixteenth Michigan at Gettysburg and Beyond", The Gettysburg Magazine 6 (January 1992), 33-39; Coddington, Gettysburg, 744.

53 Coddington, Gettysburg, 395.

54 Farley, Dedication of Regimental Monument" in Norton, 'Strong Vincent", Gettysburg Papers, 513.

55 Ibid.

56 Ibid.

57 Ibid., 514.

58 Brian A. Bennett, "The Supreme Event in its Existence - The 140th New York on Little Round Top", The Gettysburg Magazine 3 (July 1990): 21

. 59 Robeling to Farley, December 13 1877, in Norton, Little Round Top, 3 3 0.

60 O.R., 27, Part 1, 593.

61 Warren to Farley, October 31 1877, in Norton, Little Round Top, 316.

62 Norton, Little Round Top, 269: O.R., 27, Part 1, 593: Pfanz, Gettysburg, the Second Day, 226-7.

63 Warren to Farley, July 13 1870, in Norton, Little Round Top, 311.

64 Norton, Little Round Top, 269. 65 Brown, Signal Corps, 262-3.

66 Gibney, "A Shadow Passing", Gettysburg Magazine, 39.

67 Norton, Little Round Top, 331-2. Norton, indescribing Vincent's actions, was careful not to distract from what Warren accomplished. He did, however, point out a number of things which Warren did not accomplish for which he has been given credit.

68 Coddington, Gettysburg, 400.

69 For an excellent discussion on the effects of Civil War Artillery see Paddy Griffith, Battle Tactics of the Civil War (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1989), 165-178.

70 This study highlights the actions of those commanders and staff officers responsible for bringing to bear the forces to defend the hill. It goes without saying that Colonels Chamberlain and Rice played absolutely key roles in the defense of Little Round Top, but their contribution was more in the fight itself and not in getting troops to the hill.