1 Abner Hard, History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment, Illinois Volunteers (reprint, Morningside, Dayton, Ohio 1984), p. 242.
2 James S. Brisbin to Dearest Wife, June 8, 1863, 6th U.S. Cavalry Regiment, First Provisional Brigade, Dept. Of Arkansas, Letter, September 12, 1862-November 28, 1865, Civil War Times Illustrated Collection, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
3 Samuel L. Gracey, Annals of the Sixth Pennsylvania Cavalry (Philadelphia, 1868), pp. 156-157. Evidently, not all of the Union troopers were permitted to sleep as they waited to cross at Beverly Ford. See, e.g., Hillman A. Hall, ed., History of the Sixth New York Cavalry (The Blanchard Press, Worcester, Massachusetts, 1908), p. 127 (No fires were permitted at night, the men standing to horse, noiseless and alert.).
4 Frank Moore, ed., The Rebellion Record, Vol. VII, p. 16.
5 Sidney Morris Davis, Common Soldier, Uncommon War: Life as a Civil War Cavalryman, George F. Cooney, ed. (Bethesda, Maryland, SMD Group, 1994), p. 391.
6 Captain F.C. Newhall, The Battle of Beverly Ford, The Philadelphia Weekly Times, reprinted in Annals of the War (Dayton, Ohio, Morningside House, Inc., 1988), pp. 138- 139.
7 Henry Norton, Deeds of Daring: or History of the Eighth New York Volunteer Cavalry (Chenango Telegraph Printing House, Norwich, New York, 1889), pp. 30-33.
8 Hard, p. 243.
9 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863, The Joseph Hooker Papers, Albert Huntington Library, San Marino, CA, p. 1. For some reason, Bufords official report of the Battle of Brandy Station never made it into the Official Records of the Civil War, and has not been fully published to date.
10 Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart to My Darling One, October 25, 1862, J.E.B. Stuart Papers, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Virginia.
11 John S. Mosby, Stuarts Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign (1908; reprint, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Olde Soldier Books, 1987), p. 18; Dobbie E. Lambert, Grumble: The W.E. Jones Brigade, 1863-64 (Lambert Enterprises, Wahiawa, Hawaii, 1992), pp. 1- 9.
12 Hard, p. 243.
13 McDonald, p. 134; T.J. Young, The Battle of Brandy Station, Confederate Veteran, Vol. XXIII (April, 1915), pp. 171-172.
14 Norton, p. 65. According to the regimental historian of the 8th New York, the surprise in the Confederate camps was complete, and mass confusion resulted from the Confederates being caught unaware.
15 Blue, Hanging Rock Rebel, p. 198.
16 Maj. James F. Hart, in the Philadelphia Weekly Times, June 26, 1880, quoted in McClellan, The Life and Campaigns of Major-General J.E.B. Stuart, p. 266.
17 Norton, p. 65; McClellan, p. 265; Edward G. Longacre, The Cavalry at Gettysburg (Lincoln, The University of Nebraska Press, 1986), p. 67.
18 Norton, p. 66; McDonald, p. 135. It is interesting to note that Buford and Col. Marshall were probably distantly related. Buford was related to United States Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall, the great judicial activist. Col. Marshall was a grandson of the great judge. Therefore, Buford and his adversary were probably related, thereby demonstrating the schisms that the Civil War created in many American families.
19 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863.
20 P.J. Kennedy to Dear Parents, June 11, 1863, Morrison-Whiteside, Illinois Journal, June 25, 1863.
21 George M. Neese, Three Years in the Confederate Horse Artillery (New York, Neale Publishing Co., 1911; reprint, Dayton, Ohio, Morningside, 1988), p. 171.
22 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part II, p. 748.
23 Mosby, p. 18; Moffat, The Battle of Brandy Station, p. 74. Moffat states that Jones gave the enemy such a stiff fight that he held them in check until the remainder of the corps could be mounted and Gen. Stuart form his line of battle. Ibid. This may be a bit of an overstatement.
24 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part II, pp. 772-773.
25 John J. Shoemaker, Shoemakers Battery, Stuart Horse Artillery, Pelhams Battalion, Army of Northern Virginia (Memphis, Tennessee, n.d.; reprint, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Olde Soldier Books, n.d.), p. 38.
26 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part III, p. 902.
27 Clark B. Hall, Buford at Brandy Station, Civil War (July-August, 1990), p. 16.
28 Henry P. Moyer, History of the Seventeenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry (Lebanon, Pennsylvania: 1911), p. 45; Hall, Sixth New York, p. 127.
29 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part II, p. 749.
30 Brian Stuart Kesterson, ed., The Last Survivor: The Memoirs of George William Watson (Washington, West Virginia: Night Hawk Press, 1993), pp. 20-22.
31 Dennis E. Frye, 12th Virginia Cavalry, 2nd ed. (Lynchburg, Virginia, H.E. Howard, Inc. 1988), p. 36.
32 Frank M. Myers, The Comanches: A History of Whites Battalion, Virginia Cavalry (Baltimore, Kelly, Piet & Co., 1871), p. 182; Frye, p. 36. The 35th was commanded by Col. Elijah Lije V. White, and was a veteran raiding unit. It had not seen much classic cavalry combat, and was largely untested in a stand-up fight. As Jones had no other available reserve, he threw in the 35th, and it performed well.
33 Davis, Common Soldier, Uncommon War, pp. 391-2.
34 Richard L.T. Beale, History of the Ninth Virginia Cavalry in the War Between the States (Richmond, Virginia: B.F. Johnson Publishing, 1899), p. 85.
35 Longacre, p. 73.
36 Kesterson, p. 20.
37 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863.
38 Letter by Major Henry C. Whelan to Charles C. Cadwalader, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, June 11, 1863, Cadwalader Family Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
39 Fairfax Downey, Clash of Cavalry: The Battle of Brandy Station (New York: David McKay Co., 1959), p. 103.
40 Gracey, p. 160. Major Robert Morris, Jr., the commanding officer of the 6th Pennsylvania, was captured during the charge. Morris, grandson of the financier of the American Revolution, would die as a prisoner of war in Richmonds notorious Libby Prison, another casualty of this most fratricidal of wars.
41 Lt. Col. W.H. Carter, From Yorktown to Santiago with the Sixth U.S. Cavalry (1900; reprint, Austin, Texas, State House Press, 1989), p. 84. One squadron of the 6th U.S. was left on the other side of the Rappahannock in support of the Union guns positioned there.
42 Neese, p. 172.
43 Clark B. Hall, Buford at Brandy Station, p. 16.
44 Grimsley, p. 10.
45 Capt. George C. Cram to Sir, June 10, 1863, Box 15, Folder A, The Joseph Hooker Papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
46 Thomas C. Devin to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June __, 1863, The Joseph Hooker Papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
47 Lt. Samuel S. Elder to Capt. James M. Robertson, June 20, 1863, Henry Jackson Hunt Papers, Manuscripts Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
48 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863. This was the first time that Merritt commanded troops in a pitched battle. However, his performance that day caught Alfred Pleasontons eye, and he would quickly be recognized for his fine performance and outstanding leadership skills.
49 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part II, pp. 772-73.
50 Abner Hard to Editor Beacon, June 11, 1863, The Aurora, Illinois Beacon, June 18, 1863.
51 Ibid., p. 768.
52 Capt. Frank Robertson to My Dear Kate, June 12, 1863, quoted in Robert J. Trout, ed., With Sword and Saber: The Letters and Diaries of J.E.B. Stuarts Staff Officers (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, Stackpole Books, 1995), p. 208. Robertson was one of Stuarts engineering officers, and traveled with Stuarts headquarters. Thus, he was present when the sounds of the firing reached Stuarts ears that morning.
53 von Borcke, p. 88.
54 Capt. Frank Robertson to My Dear Kate, June 12, 1863, quoted in Trout, p. 209; Thomas C. Devin to Capt. A.J. Cohen, June __, 1863.
55 McClellan, p. 267.
56 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863; Capt. James E. Harrison to Sir, June 16, 1863, James Harrison Papers, United States Military Academy Special Collections, West Point, New York, Reference No. 173.
57 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 903.
58 David McM. Gregg, The Second Cavalry Division, Army of the Potomac in the Gettysburg Campaign, unpublished manuscript, David M. Gregg Papers, Manuscripts Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
59 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 950.
60 Diary of Jasper Cheney, Co. A, 8th New York Volunteer Cavalry, Civil War Times Illustrated Collection, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, entry of June 9, 1863.
61 John Buford to A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1862. Nobody seems to know why this report was left out of the Official Records. For many years, most historians believed that Buford failed to write a report of Brandy Station. In fact, it was buried in the Joseph Hooker Papers, held by the Albert Huntington Library and Museum, located in San Marino, California. This report, one of Bufords best, was only located in 1989. It was truly a great find, and filled a huge gap in modern understanding of the epic fight at Brandy Station. 62 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 903.
63 McClellan, p. 282.
64 This is the area of the Brandy Station battlefield which was threatened by the development of a Formula One auto race track. Fortunately, the tireless effort of some dedicated people have saved this battlefield from its imminent destruction.
65 Longacre, p. 84; Sutherland, pp. 248-249.
67 G.W. Beale, A Lieutenant of Cavalry in Lees Army (Boston: 1918; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, Butternut & Blue, 1994), p. 96. Lt. Beale was the son of Col. R.L.T. Beale, the commanding officer of the 9th Virginia.
68 Wesley Merritt, Recollections of the Civil War, in Theophilus Rodenbough, ed., From Everglade to Canon With the Second Dragoons (New York, D. Von Nostrand, 1875), p. 287.
69 Lt. Albert O. Vincent to Lt. J. Hamilton Bell, June 16, 1863, Henry Jackson Hunt Papers, Manuscripts Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
70 John Buford to A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863.
71 Merritt, Recollections, pp. 287-288.
72 Ibid., p. 288.
73 Maj. Charles J. Whiting to Capt. Theodore C. Bacon, June 12, 1863, Box 15, Folder A, Joseph Hooker Papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
74 Merritt, Recollections, p. 289.
75 G.W. Beale, p. 96.
76 Richmond Daily Dispatch, June 15, 1863.
77 Davis, Common Soldier, Uncommon War, pp. 395-6.
78 Merritt, Recollections, p. 289.
79 Robert Driver, Jr., Tenth Virginia Cavalry (Lynchburg, Virginia, H.E. Howard, Inc., 1992), p. 37.
80 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863.
81 Lt. Albert O. Vincent to Lt. J. Hamilton Bell, June 16, 1863.
82 Hampton S. Thomas, Some Personal Reminiscences of Service in the Cavalry of the Army of the Potomac (Philadelphia: L.R. Hammersley, 1889), p. 9.
83 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part III, p. 876.
84 von Borcke, p. 98.
85 Newhall, p. 143.
86 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863.
87 Capt. Richard S.C. Lord to Dear Sir, June 11, 1863, Box 15, Folder A, The Joseph Hooker Papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
88 Newhall, p. 144.
89 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 1045.
90 Norton, p. 67.
91 O.R. Vol. XXVII, Part I, pp. 903-4; see, also, Report of Major H.C. Whelan, edited by Brian C. Pohanka, Civil War (July-August, 1990), p. 10. Like John Bufords report of the fight at Brandy Station, Whelans report was lost for many years, only being uncovered in the Joseph Hooker papers in 1989. Its discovery adds a lot to the distinguished history of a fine regiment.
92 Major Henry C. Whelan to Charles C. Cadwalader, June 11, 1863.
93 J.I. Lambert, One Hundred Years with the Second Cavalry (Topeka, Kansas, 1939), p. 70.
94 John Buford to Lt. Col. A.J. Alexander, June 13, 1863.