In reply to Steve Florman -
The Gburg paroles of federals already released were the paroles discounted. It was the rare yankee who went home to wait out his parole. Most eastern theater guys went to Camp Parole in Annapolis MD (still called Parole) and lived in a camp under guard.
Colonel Adrian Root, 94th NY, was captured July 1 at Gburg and accepted a parole on the field (from none other than AP HIll - it seems Little Powell did get out of bed for a while). On July 11, Root wrote home from Washington DC
> My dear Mother,BEN'S NOTE:
I am getting along very well indeed. My head troubles me somewhat but I shall in a few days be all right again. I understand that the US Government does not intend to acknowledge my parole and those of other officers as valid and binding and will order us back to duty. I promised sacredly not to take up arms against the Confederate States until duly exchanged. If the US Government refuses to exchange me or to allow me to surrender myself again as a prisoner of war to the Confederates, I shall promptly tender my resignation.
In fact, it is a matter of conscience with me and I cannot sacrifice my self-respect by violating my parole. I will write again fully shortly.
Communique from Halleck to Meade on July 9 of 1863:
"If no arrangement was made between you and General Lee for the exchange and parole of prisoners of war, by designating places of delivery, as provided for in the seventh cartel, no parole given by the troops of either army is valid. Please answer if any such agreement was made."Communique from Halleck to Meade, Schenck, and Couch on July 10 of 1863:
"It has been understood and agreed between Colonel Ludlow and Mr Ould, agents for exchange of prisoners, that paroles not given as prescribed in section seven of the cartel, after May 22, are to be considered as null and void, and that officers and men of the respective parties paroled not in accordance with that section of the cartel will be returned to duty without exchange. They will be so returned to duty."Judge Ronald Ould, Confederate Commissioner for Exchange of POWs was appointed July 23, 1862, and remained in this capacity until the end of the war. Major Gen'l Ethan Allen Hitchcock served as Ould's federal counterpart from November of '62 and the above-mentioned "Ludlow" was probably his aide. Major Gen'l Ben Butler assumed Hitchcock's duties after August, 1864. "The Cartel" refers to The Dix-Hill Cartel governing the exchange of POWs which was finalized between the generals with those names during July of 1862.
Because of the fuss he kicked up, Root was detailed as commander of Camp Parole for the rest of the war.