1st Maryland

1st Maryland

Greetings all In a recent post by someone??? I got the impression that during the Gettysburg campaign, there were times when Maryland (CSA) units fought against those of Maryland(USA) . Seems to me I've read this before. Regrettably, I no longer have a record of that post. Could someone help me with the details of those engagements? Or...did these fights happen in another campaign? Any info will be appreciated.
Thanks in advance...........Mel
Hi Mel, I think I am the "someone", since I did write something about this, in cahoots with another "someone" (perhaps Tom Clemens?), one of my favorite subjects.
The 1st Maryland CSA was a one-year (!!) regiment in the ANV, fighting in the Valley campaign, and being mustered out in late 1862. Some of the members went to other units in the Stonewall Brigade and to cavalry units, while the remainder of the units became known variously as the Maryland Line, the Maryland Battalion, or the 1st or 2nd Maryland Battalion. (In 1864, it became officially known as the 2nd Maryland Regiment.) This battalion-sized unit (eight companies) fought in "Maryland" Steuart's brigade (Johnson's Division) at Gettysburg.

On the evening of July 2nd, Johnson's Division attacked Culp's Hill. Three of the units arrayed against the Confederates on the Federal side (Lockwood's brigade) were the 3rd Maryland US, 1st Maryland Potomac Home Brigade (not a brigade but a big regiment), originally recruited as a garrison unit for Washington DC area, and the 1st Maryland Eastern Shore, recruited to specifically defend Maryland's Eastern Shore. Harry Pfanz has an excellent description of the fight for Culp's Hill in his book GETTYSBURG-CULP'S HILL AND CEMETERY HILL, and there are other references describing the fighting such as W. W. Goldsborough's THE MARYLAND LINE IN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY, and Daniel Carroll Toomey's MARYLANDERS AT GETTYSBURG.

The fight for the Hill opened with Steuart's Brigade on the Division's (and the entire army's!)left with the Marylanders running up against Greene's breastworks manned by NY regiments. Since it was dark, supporting troops from the 1st NC fired at muzzle flashes, shooting into the 1st MD in error. The 1st, NC, 3rd NC, and the 1st MD occupied the first line of works, some of which were empty because of Federal troops sent away to help out III Corps on Meade's left. The Confederates stayed in the works for the rest of the night (from about 11 PM on). XII Corps artillery raked the 1st MD first thing in morning (about 4 AM). Johnson was ordered to renew the attack, even though everyone in the division knew it was almost suicidal. Capt. William Murray led the battalion forward on the right across 200 yds of open ground almost to the breastworks, where he was killed nearly at the works. The 1st Maryland Potomac Home Brigade relieved the 29th PA which had just used its last rounds against the 1st MD CSA. The Federal 1st MD PHB were ordered to charge the stone wall sheltering what remained of the 1st MD CSA, but this order was rescinded, and the unit was brought back to the Baltimore Pike, while Slocum brought up the 1st MD Eastern Shore in its place. The Eastern Shore boys stayed in the works fighting the rest of the day, learning from prisoners that they fought against the 1st MD Confederates. In fact, Color Sgt. Robert W. Ross, of 1st Eastern Shore, was a cousin of Color Sgt. P.M.Moore of Company E 1st MD Battlion, who was wounded 4-5 times and captured by some his neighbors.

Losses for the MD units were:

Md. Battalion lost over 250 out of 400 (estimates vary)
1st MD PHB had 100 casualties in about 30 minutes
1st MD ES had 7 K, 22 W, & 7 M
The monuments to these units are on Culp's Hill, the Confederates actually having a monument built in 1884 by survivors of the 1st MD, the first Confederate monument on the battlefield. However, the Commission required that the monument be designated the "2nd Maryland" to avoid confusion with the two Federal regiments designated as "!st". Also, the monument was required to be placed at the point where the battalion broke through Federal defenses, not their most forward position, which is marked by a small marker about 100 yds further into Federal lines. The marker is distinctive in that some of the Battalion oldtimers later inscribed the 1st MD designation into the marker, in much smaller letters.

The 1st MD Eastern Shore monument is nearby.

The Culp's Hill summit Auto Tour stop has a picture of the charge of the "2nd Maryland" against the Union lines near George Greene's statue.

Esteemed member "John M. Kelly" contributes:

Further on the Maryland vs. Maryland thread:

Rigby's Battery (Battery A, 1st MD Light Artillery, originally part of Purnell's Legion (in answer to my question a week or so ago), was part of the XII Corps artillery on Powers Hill. The battery took part in the shelling of Confederate positions on Culp's Hill early on the morning of July 3rd, meaning that they were probably shelling the 1st MD CSA.

The Third Maryland Infantry USA spent most of July 2nd on Culp's Hill, was then rushed to the Federal left to counter Longstreet's attack on III Corps early in the evening. The Third Maryland returned to Culp's Hill well after dark, took some incoming fire from Confederates holed up in the Third's former position, and fell back to await daylight. It was kept in reserve until after the fight on Culp's Hill died out, moving to its former position at about noon. It skirmished with the CSA until the end of the battle.

Dement's First Maryland Battery CSA and Brown's Fourth Maryland (Chesapeake Artillery) Battery were in Latimer's artillery battalion at its exposed position on Benner's Hill. The battalion opened on Cemetery Hill at about 4 PM with 20 guns, but the battalion was faced by Federal artillery of at least 40 guns, and the Confederates were in a wide open position. The results were predictable. Both Maryland batteries were smashed in short order, all of the First's guns disabled, and all but one of the Fourth's. In addition, the First lost 9 horses, 1 caisson, along with Capt. Dement, Lt.Roberts,10 enlisted men killed, and 32 EM's wounded- horrendous losses for a four-gun battery. The Fourth lost 6 EM's killed, 8 wounded, and lost half its horses. Although the Marylanders in Latimer's Battalion faced the Marylanders of Rigby's Battery A on Powers Hill, Rigby's guns only fired a few rounds with little effect because of the extreme range. Rigby, in turn, would have been out of Latimer's range for most of the battalion.

Cavalry units from Maryland also served at Gettysburg. The First Maryland Cavalry served with Ewell's Corps, where it was used as guides for the advance into Pennsylvania. During the battle, it was used as support for batteries by Ewell.

The Baltimore Light Artillery, 2nd MD Artillery, was with Cavalry Division ANV, and was on the York Road with Jenkins Brigade when attacked by Gregg's Federal cavalry, including the First Maryland Cavalry USA.The First Maryland was on the extreme right so was not involved in much of the action. The Baltimore Light Artillery was not heavily engaged.

One other note regarding the First Maryland CSA: Private Minion F. Knott of Company F, 1st MD Battalion CSA, is buried at the National Cemetery (Section C, #4) apparently dying of wounds after the battle, and assumed to be a Federal Marylander.

Esteemed member clemenst@isx.hjc.cc.md.us (Tom Clemens) contributes:

Sorry I was away for a few days and missed joining the discussion of one of the few topics about G-burg with which I feel conversant. Terry and Jack et al did a noble job, thank you.

One anecdote of many about the Marylanders there concerns 1st MD Eastern Shore. This regiment was enlisted along very narrow guidelines prescribing their service. One company, K, was recruited in the lower part ofthe shore, Somerset and Worcester counties, where Southern sympathies ran high. On hearing of their being ordered from their station at Cambridge to Baltimore to be re-armed and joined to Meade's army, 62 members of Company K mutnied, literally, and refused to leave the Eastern Shore. Evidently because their enlistment specified that they were a "home guard" unit, they got away with it. They were ordered to turn in their weapons, they were dishonorably discharged, (July 2, 1863) and given train fare back to Salisbury. I'm sure there were those who would have like to shoot a few of them, but the positive benefits of not imflaming the passions of the citizens of the lower Maryland probably out-wieghed strict adherance to the code of military justice.

Company K that won't cross the Bay! I wonder if they regretted missing what for many would have been the greatest adventure of their lives.

Most of this is gleaned from the OR's and the Roster of Maryland Volunteers.