The 22nd N.C. Regiment in the Gettysburg Campaign


On June 4, 1863, Lee put his army in motion toward the Shenandoah Valley to begin the campaign that would end at Gettysburg. Ewell's corps moved first and was followed by Longstreet's corps. Hill's corps remained temporarily at Fredericksburg to watch the Federal forces opposite the town. Ewell's corps defeated an enemy force at Winchester on June 13, and Longstreet's corps occupied Culpeper Court House. The Federal forces at Fredericksburg began moving north the same day, and Hill's corps was ordered to follow. Ewell's corps crossed the Potomac River and entered Maryland on June 16 and was joined by the leading elements of Hill's and Longstreet's corps on June 24. By June 27 Hill's corps was encamped near Champbersburg. On June 29 Hill was ordered to move to Cashtown, and Longstreet was directed to follow the next day. Ewell's corps, which had proceeded eastward to Carlisle, was ordered to rejoin the army at Cashtown or Gettysburg as circumstances required.

 General Henry Heth's division of Hill's corps reached Cashtown on June 29, and the next morning General James J. Pettigrew's brigade was sent to Gettysburg to procure supplies. Finding the town occupied by the enemy, Pettigrew retired to Cashtown. During the evening of June 30 General Hill arrived at Cashtown with Pender's division and decided to attack with Heth's and Penders divisions the next morning. Heth's division was formed in line of battle, and Pender's division was formed in line behind Heth's. Scale's brigade was second from the left with the left of the brigade on the Chambersburg Pike. After marching about a quarter of a mile the line halted, and the brigade on Scales's left was moved to the right of the division line. This left Scales's brigade on the extreme left of the division line. After a thirty-minute wait the line moved forward. Ewell's corps came in from Carlisle and struck the enemy in the right flank as Heth's division came under fire, and the Federals were driven from three defensive lines. Heth's division was then relieved by Pender's , and the attack continued until the Federals retired throught the streets of Gettysburg and began to fortify Cemetery Hill just south of the town. General Scales reproted the brigade's encounter with the enemy as follows (Official Records, S.I, Vol. XXVII,pt. 2, pp 669-670):


During the attack, every brigade field officer except one was disabled. General Scales reported that the brigade lost: 9 officers killed, 45 wounded, and 1 missing. The ranks were decimated by the loss of: 39 men killed, 336 wounded, and 115 missing. Some of the missing and slightly wounded returned to duty during the night, and Colonel William Lee J. Lowrance of the 34th Regiment N.C. Troops, who assumed command of the brigade after Scales was wounded, reported that it numbered about 500 men.

 After nightfall the brigade was ordered to the extreme right of the army, and on the morning of July 2 it was moved farther to the right on line with the artillery. About 1:00 P.M. the brigade was relieved by General Richard H. Anderson's division and ordered to rejoin Pender's division in the center of the line. General Pender was mortally wounded on July 2, and James H. Lane was placed in temporary command of the division pending the arrival of General Isaac R. Trimble. On the morning of July 3 Lane's and Scales's (Lowrance's) brigandes were ordered to the right to take part in an attack to be launched against the Federal center. General Trimble arrived in time to take command of the two brigades as they formed in line behind the artillery. The attack was to be made by George E. Pickett's division of Longstreet's corps on the right, supported by Cadmus M. Wilcox's brigade on the right rear, and by Heth's division (commanded by General Pettigrew) of Hill's corps on the left, supported by the two brigades of Pender's division under General Trimble.

 About 1:00 P.M. the Confederates began a heavy cannonade which continued for two hours. The attack column then moved in front of the artillery and formed for the attack. Colonel Lowrance, still commanding Scales's brigade, reported the action as follows (Official Records, S.I, Vol. XXVII, pt. 2, pp. 671-672):


Following the failure of the assault, Lee held his army ready to repulse an expected attack. On the night of July 4 the army began its retreat, and on July 7 it reached Hagerstown, where a defensive line was established to hold the enemy while preparations were made to re-cross the Potomac. On July 13 the crossing was begun. Hill's corps, acting as rear guard, retired under heavy enemy pressure, and Scales's (Lowrance's) brigade barely escaped entrapment and capture. Colonel Lowrance reported the retreat and the battle at Falling Waters as follows (Official Records, S.I, Vol. XXVII, pt. 2, p. 672):


Scales's troops were saved from capture by the defensive stand of Pettigrew's brigade, during which General Pettigrew was mortally wounded. Pettigrew's men crossed the river around noon, just before the bridge was cut. Thus ended Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania. Losses of the 22nd Regiment N.C. Troops during the campaign were officially reported as 20 men killed and 69 wounded.

 When the Federal army crossed into Virginia in mid-July Lee moved his army east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. By August 4 the Army of Northern Virginia occupied the Rapidan River line, and the Federal army had take position on the Rappahannock River line. (General Cadmus M. Wilcox was assigned to command Pender's division after General Trimble was captured on July 3, and the 22nd Regiment N.C. Troops now belonged to Scales's brigade, Wilcox's division, Hill's corps. General Scales returned to duty after his wound healed and resumed command of the brigade.)



Information transcribed by Christopher J. Army:

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