Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association







At a stated meeting, held October 3, 1894, of the Directors of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association, a resolution was adopted authorizing the appointment of a committee to prepare and publish a history of the Association.

At the stated meeting, May 22, 1895, Hon. Edward McPherson, chairman of the committee appointed in accordance with the resolution, submitted a report upon the history and its cost of publication.

Major-General Daniel E. Sickles, U.S.A., offered a resolution, which was unanimously adopted, authorizing, under the supervision of Vice-President Colonel C. H. Buehler, the publication of two hundred and fifty copies of the history of the Memorial Association, and making an appropriation for the expense thereof.

Vice-President Buehler appointed Mr. McPherson to compile and publish the history. Upon the deaths of Colonel Buehler and Mr. McPherson, the duty devolved upon the Executive Committee of the Association to select an historian.


At a stated meeting of the committee, John M. Vanderslice, Esq., whose long and faithful service to the Association as a Director and as Secretary of the Committee on Tablets and Inscriptions made him especially qualified for the work, was unanimously selected to prepare the history, and a sub-committee was appointed to supervise the publication. This book is the result of his labors, and it is believed that the important work of the Association in connection with the preservation of the historic battle-field of Gettysburg is fully and fairly set forth for future reference.

Louis Wagner,

John P. Nicholson,





Map Frontispiece.
Introduction 9
Gettysburg 15
Losses in the Twelve Greatest Battles of the War 17
The Town and Field 19
The Ten Roads leading into the Town 21
The Advance of the Army 22
The Cavalry Fight at Hanover 27
Forces Engaged and the States represented in the Battle 29


Approach of the Confederaes 33
Encountered by Buford's Cavalry 34
The First Federal Corps arrives and opens Fire 36
Meredith's Federal Brigade charges Archer's 37
Death of General Reynolds 38
Davis's Confederate Brigade attacks Cutler's 39
General Heth reforms his Line 39
Doubleday's Federal Division goes into Position 41
Robinson's Division meets Rodes's upon Oak Ridge 41
The Federal Eleventh Corps arrives upon the Right 43
Attacked in Flank by Early's Confederate Division 45
Its Withdrawal to Cemetery Hill 45
Robinson's Division forced to abandon Oak Ridge 45
The Fight continued on the Left by the First Corps 47
The Corps retires to Cemetery Hill 49
Losses at Reynolds's Grove 56
Losses upon Oak Ridge 62
Losses upon Eleventh Corps Line 64
Number of Regiments of each State Engaged 67


Position of the Several Corps 68
Sickles moves Federal Third Corps forward to New Line 71


Opening of the Battle at Devil's Den 72
It extends into the Wheat-Field 73
Arrival of the Federal Fifth Corps upon the Field 75
Confederates attack Little Round Top 76
Battle in the Wheat-Field continued 78
First Division of the Federal Second Corps goes into Action 79
Ayres's Division of United States Regulars enters the Field 82
The Federal Troops forced to abandon the Field 82
The Fight at the Peach Orchard 83
Struggle of Humphreys's Federal Division along the Emmitsburg Road 85
Withdrawal of Federals to Cemetery Ridge 87
The Battle continued there 88
Confederates capture Works upon Culp's Hill 91
Confederate Assault upon East Cemetery Hill 93
Losses at Round Top 96
Losses in Wheat-Field 98
Losses in Peach Orchard 104
Losses upon Emmittsburg Road 107
Losses upon East Cemetery Hill 110


Battle opens upon Culp's Hill 115
Confederate Assault upon Cemetery Ridge 122
Charge of Pickett's, Pettigrew's, and Trimble's Divisions 124
They reach the Wall held by the Federal Second Corps 125
They are repulsed with Great Loss 129
Injustice done to Pettigrew's and Trimble's Divisions 130
The Troops engaged in the Assault and Repulse 132
Gregg's Cavalry Fight on the Right Flank 134
Final Charge and Repulse of Confederate Cavalry 137
Federal Cavalry Charge upon the Left Flank 140
McCandless's Pennsylvania Reserves capture a Battery 141
Losses at Culp's Hill 142
Losses in Assault upon Cemetery Ridge 146
Losses in Pickett's, Pettigrew's, and Trimble's Divisions com- pared 150
Regiments engaged and States represented 153
Cavalry Losses 154



Retreat of Confederate Army 156
Points where Principal Fighting was done according to Losses 161
Losses by Divisions 162
Losses by States 163


Location 171
Arrangement of Graves 179
Dedicatory Services 180
Speech of Secretary Seward 182
Prayer of Rev. Dr. Stockton 184
Oration of the Hon. Edward Everett 187
The Memorable Address of President Lincoln 193
Design of the Monument 195


First Appropriation by Pennsylvania 202
First Appropriation by Minnesota 206
Reorganization of the Association 211
Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic upon the Field . 213

First Appropriation for Monuments by Massachusetts 216
Death of Vice-President McCreary 217
Inscriptions required upon Monuments 221v Death of Vice-President Buehler 228
No Memorials but those constructed of Granite or Bronze allowed upon the Field 229
Monuments to be located in Positions occupied by Commands in Line of Battle 232
Markers at Advanced Positions allowed 232
Monument of Pickett's Confederate Division directed to be placed on the line occupied by it 233
Spot where Confederate General Armistead fell, July 3, marked by the Association 234
Avenues named 235
Rules and Regulations for Erection of Monuments 236
Death of Secretary Krauth 248
Deaths of Generals Barnum and Crawford 252
Death of General Slocum 256



Lands, Monuments, etc., transferred to the United States Govern- ment 257
Deaths of Colonel Bachelder and General Carr 257
Last Meeting of the Association 258
List of Directors of the Association during its Existence 259
Abstract of all Receipts and Expenditures 261
List of Federal Regiments, Batteries, and General Officers from each State 263
Appropriations to Association for Monuments and Description of Principal Monuments 263
List of Regiments and Batteries of the United States Regular Army 305
List of Confederate Commands 307
Act establishing National Military Park 316



Congress having passed an act on February 11, 1895, "to establish a National Military Park at Gettysburg," the Board of Directors of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association, at a meeting held May 22 1895, having been previously authorized to do so by a vote of the stockholders, decided to transfer to the United States government the six hundred acres of land which had been acquired by the Association, upon which seventeen miles of avenues had been constructed, giving access to the most interesting points of the battle-field, and to consign to the care and protection of the general government the three hundred and twenty monuments which had been erected upon the field by the several States and by regimental associations.
There were present at this meeting of the Board: Colonel C. H. Buehler, of Pennsylvania, vice-president; General Daniel E. Sickles and General Alex. S. Webb, of New York; General Lucius Fairchild, of Wisconsin; Colonel Frank D. Sloat, of Connecticut; Colonel Charles L.


Young, of Ohio; Colonel George E. Briggs, of Michigan; Colonel Wheelock G. Veazey, of Vermont; General D. McM. Gregg, General Louis Wagner, Hon. Edward McPherson, Hon. S. McSwope, Captain H. W. McKnight, D D., and Messrs. J. M. Vanderslice, J. L. Schick, J. A. Kitzmiller, Dr. C. E. Goldsborough, and Calvin Hamilton, the Secretary of Pennsylvania; General Joseph B. Carr, of New York, and Colonel John B. Bachelder, of Massachusetts, having died since the previous meeting in October. There were also present Colonel John P. Nicholson, of Pennsylvania, also a member of the Board; Major W. M. Robins, of North Carolina, and Major C. A. Richardson, of New York, composing the United States Board of Battle-field Commissioners.

After the transaction of the important business attending the formal transfer to the national government of the property of the Association, and the practical completion of the work for which it had been organized thirty-one years before, upon motion of General Sickles, it was decided to publish a brief history of "The Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association." It was considered of importance, historically, that there should be preserved a record of the great results accomplished by the Memorial Association, the first of like character ever organized.


It was also deemed proper that there should be some recognition of the generous and patriotic support accorded the Association by the people of the several States, whose legislatures had made liberal appropriations in furtherance of its objects, and of the zealous and effective co-operation given it by the survivors of many of the commands which participated in the battle; for, by the aid thus rendered, the Association was enabled to acquire much of the most important part of the battle-field and to correctly mark the lines of battle, so that at the conclusion of its work the position of every volunteer command in the Union army except three had been appropriately marked by enduring, and many of them by artistic and costly, monuments or memorials, representing in the aggregate an expenditure of more than three fourths of a million dollars, and Gettysburg was not only more visited but better marked and understood than any battle-field in the world.

It was suggested that in connection with the history of the Memorial Association there should be published a concise history of the battle, so that the work of the Association might be better understood and the difficulties attending its efforts to secure and accurately mark the battlefield be better appreciated, as well as to show how fitting was the work it attempted to accomplish,


how richly the troops who fought upon the field deserved that it should be preserved as it was when hallowed by their services and sacrifices, how appropriate, too, that their States should erect thereon memorials to commemorate for all time their devotion and valor, and why the care and attention the field is now receiving from the national government in liberal appropriations and intelligent management by able and judicious commissioners meets the approbation of all patriotic people.

The writer was selected by the Board of Directors to write this history. As he had been actively identified with the work of the Association for sixteen years, for the most of that time being a member of the Executive Committee and Secretary of the Committee on the Location of and Inscriptions on Monuments, it was probably thought that his familiarity with the work and the information he had acquired might in a measure qualify him for the duty.

While highly appreciative of its confidence in him, as evinced by this action of the Board, he is equally appreciative of the responsibility he assumes and of probable disappointment with the results of his work.

It is proposed to briefly and accurately describe the position, movement, services, and losses of every regiment and battery engaged


in the battle, as established by the information gathered and collated by the Association, by the official reports, and by statements of officers and men of both armies, who, by its invitation upon several occasions, met and conferred upon the field for the purpose of marking the lines of battle, which statements have been most carefully examined, compared, and verified.

There will be no criticisms upon strategical or tactical movements upon the field. In fact, there were few such. As has been well said, "Gettysburg was, in a measure, the American soldiers' battle," a battle of the ranks, a struggle of American prowess and courage, of discipline and tenacity, of unwavering fidelity and unselfish devotion, a contest of American manhood.


The Legislature of Pennsylvania, on April 30, 1864, conferred upon the Memorial Association the rights of a corporation by the following Act of Assembly:



"SECTION 1. Be it enacted, etc., That Joseph R. Ingersoll, T. D. Carson, D. McConaughy, Wm. McSherry, A. D. Buehler, R. G. McCreary, J. B. Danner, George Arnold, J. L. Shick, James H. Marshall, Henry C. Carey, J. G. Fell, Alexander Henry, Edmund A. Souder, Theodore Cuyler, Wm. Strong, S. A. Mercer, H. C. Baird, Thomas M. Howe, N. B. Craig, John P. Penny, Wm. H. Robinson, Jr., James L. Graham, Harvey Childs, George G. Meade, Thomas J. Bingham, A. O. Heister, James Worrall, James L. Reynolds, S. W. Crawford, Winfield S. Hancock, John L. Atlee, William Kinsey, Samuel Small, F. M. Kimmell, P. Frazier Smith, J. McD. Sharp, H. C. Johnson, John Cessna, B. B. Vincent, John Scott, Wm. A. Wallace, George W. Householder, John S. McCalmont, Daniel Agnew, Wm. Hopkins, John P. Crozier, Wm. H. Miller, A. K. McClure, John D. Cochran, J. N. McAlister, C. L. Pershing, R. A. McMurtrie, their associates, who have subscribed and all others who shall hereafter subscribe to the fund devoted to the preservation of the battle-field of Gettysburg, and their successors, be and they are hereby


made a body politic and corporate, by the name, style, and title of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association, and by that name shall be able and capable, in law, to have, and use, a common seal, to sue and be sued, plead, and be impleaded, and to do all such other things as are incident to a corporation.

"Section 2. That the object of said Association shall be, to hold and preserve, the battle-grounds of Gettysburg, on which were fought the actions of the first, second, and third days of July, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, with the natural and artificial defences, as they were at the time of said battle, and by such perpetuation, and such memorial structures as a generous and patriotic people may aid to erect, to commemorate the heroic deeds the struggles, and the triumphs of their brave defenders.

"Section 3. That for its said purpose, the said Association shall have power to take, and to hold, by gift, grant, devise, purchase, or lease, such personal property and effects, and all such portions of said battle-grounds as may be necessary, or convenient, to promote and accomplish the object of its incorporation, to enclose, and perpetuate, said grounds and defences, to keep them in repair and a state of preservation, to construct and maintain ways and roads, to improve and ornament the grounds and to erect and promote the erection by voluntary contributions of structures and works of art and taste thereon, adapted to designate the spots of special interest, to commemorate the great deeds of valor, endurance, and noble self-sacrifice, and to perpetuate the memory of the heroes, and the signal events, which render these battle-grounds illustrious; and, to these ends, to make such by-laws, rules, and regulations as may be necessary, and proper, for the government of the affairs and promotion of the purposes of said Association; the property of said Association shall not be subject to attachment, or execution, and the lands acquired for the purposes of said Association,


with its personal property, and the improvements and appurtenances shall be forever exempt from taxation, and also from the payment of an enrolment tax.

"Section 4. That the property, and affairs, of said Association shall be managed by a president and a board of thirteen directors, with a secretary, treasurer, and other necessary officers, by them to be selected; to be chosen annually, from the subscribers, by a majority of the votes given, each subscriber to be entitled to a single vote; the said officers to serve one year, or until successors are elected; the election to be held annually, on the first Monday of June, at Gettysburg; public notice thereof to be given by publication, in one newspaper in Gettysburg, Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Pittsburg, at least two weeks previous to such election.

"Section 5. That said Association shall have power to issue certificates of membership to all persons who shall subscribe one or more shares to the said Battle-field Memorial Fund; the amount of a single share to be fixed by the board of directors, and not to exceed ten dollars; and all subscribers, upon payment, and receipt of such certificates, shall be entitled to vote at all elections of said Association.

"Section 6. That the president, directors, and treasurer, shall make annual reports, on the day of the annual election, to be presented to the members, and read and published, which shall be duly certified, and shall exhibit fully and accurately the receipts, expenses, and expenditures of the said Association.

"Approved The thirtieth day of April, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four.

"Governor. "



"To an act entitled 'An Act to incorporate the Gettysburg Battle field Memorial Association,' approved April 30, 1864.

"Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., That if any person shall wilfully destroy, mutilate, deface, injure, or remove any monument, column, statue, memorial structure or work of art that shall be erected or placed upon the battle-ground held, or which shall be held, by said Association, or shall wilfully destroy or remove any fence, railing, enclosure, or other work for the protection or ornament of said battleground, or any portion thereof that may be held by said Association, or shall wilfully destroy, cut, hack, bark, break down, or otherwise injure any tree, bush, or shrubbery that may be growing upon said battle-ground, or shall cut down, or fell, and remove any timber, tree, or trees, growing or being upon such battle-grounds, or shall wilfully remove or destroy any breastworks, earthworks, or other defences or shelter, on any part thereof, constructed by the armies or any portion of the forces engaged in the battle of Gettysburg; any person so offending, and found guilty thereof before any justice of the peace of the county of Adams, shall, for each and every such offence, forfeit and pay a fine, in the discretion of the justice, according to the aggravation of the offence, of not less than five nor more than fifty dollars, one-half to the use of said company, and the other half to the informer, to be enforced and recovered, before said justice, in like manner as debts of like are now recoverable, in any action of debt, brought in the name of the commonwealth, as well for the use of said company as of the person suing.

"Section 2. That in addition to the penalty provided in the first section of this act, for the offences therein prohibited, any person who shall be guilty of either of the


offences therein named, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof, in the court of quarter sessions of the said county of Adams, shall be punished by fine, not exceeding one hundred dollars, or imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both, in the discretion of the said court.

"Section 3. That the president and directors of the said Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association shall have power and authority, by themselves, committees, engineer, surveyor, superintendent, or agents, by them to be appointed, to survey, locate, and lay out roads and avenues from any public road or roads in the vicinity of Gettysburg, or of the said battle-grounds, to and upon, and also in and through, any portion or portions of said battlegrounds, not, however, passing through any dwelling-house, or any burying-ground, or any place of public worship, and to open and fence, or otherwise enclose, such roads and avenues, the latter of a width not exceeding three hundred feet; and the same may be laid out so as to embrace any breastworks, or lines of defences, or positions of the forces engaged in the battle of Gettysburg, and with power to plant rows or colonnades of trees upon said roads and avenues; Provided, That it shall be lawful for such Association to enter upon adjoining lands and take materials necessary for the construction and repair of such roads and avenues, in like manner, and with like power, as in the case of railroads, under the act regulating railroad companies, approved the nineteenth of February, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and forty-nine, and its supplements; Provided further, That before such Association shall enter upon and take possession of any such lands for roads, or avenues, or such materials, they shall make ample compensation to the owner or owners thereof, or tender adequate security therefor; And provided further, That when the said company cannot agree with


the owner or owners of any such lands which said Association may enter upon, use, or take for any such roads avenues, the like proceedings shall be had to ascertain, determine, and recover damages, on account of the taking and appropriating such lands for roads or avenues as are provided for ascertaining and recovering damages by landowners from railroad companies by the said act regulating railroad companies, and its supplements. Approved The twenty-fourth day of April, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six.

"A. G. Curtin,

There is no record of any meeting for organization of the gentlemen named above as incorporators. This may be due to the fact that immediately afterwards the great campaign in Virginia was inaugurated, and the whole attention of the people was concentrated upon the prosecution of the war during the memorable "battle summer of 1864," and that their time and means were given to the care and alleviation of the wounded and suffering. Upon the termination of the war, in the year following, there was for a time a complete diversion of public attention from everything connected with or pertaining to war. However, the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in 1867, appropriated the sum of three thousand dollars "to be applied to the purchase of portions of the battle-grounds, and the general


purposes for which said Association was incorporated," and in 1868 a like sum for the same purpose, this being all that it was asked to appropriate.

This money was presumably used in the purchase of that portion of Culp's Hill upon which the breastworks were still standing, of East Cemetery Hill where Stewart's, Reynolds's, Ricketts's, and Weidrick's batteries were posted, and where the lunettes or redans still remain, and also a small piece of ground on the slope and summit of Little Round Top, as these grounds were purchased during that period.

The first meeting of the Association of which there is any record was held on June 10, 1872, when the following persons were elected as officers and directors: President, Governor John W. Geary; Vice-President, David McConaughy; Directors, Henry C. Carey, Edmund Souder, General J. Watts De Peyster, Wm. M. Hirsh, A. D. Heister, David McConaughy, Joel B. Danner, George Arnold, Alex. D. Buehler, Dr. Charles Horner, J. Lawrence Schick, and John M. Krauth. George Arnold was subsequently elected treasurer, and John M. Krauth secretary.

The Board met on June 11, 1872, in the office of Mr. McConaughy, the following being present:Governor John W. Geary, Hon. A. D.


Heister, H. M. McAlister, J. B. Danner, David McConaughy, George Arnold, A. D. Buehler, Dr. Charles Horner, J. L. Schick, and John M. Krauth. George Arnold had evidently been elected treasurer in some preceding year, as he at this meeting submitted his report, which was referred to a committee for audit. By a resolution, Mr. David McConaughy was appointed counsel and actuary, with full power to use every honorable effort to procure from every State interested appropriations to defray the expenses of carrying out the views and plans of the Board, and his compensation was fixed at one thousand dollars per annum.

By a resolution, the commander-in-chief of the army, with his staff and the commanders of corps, divisions, and brigades, were elected honorary directors of the Association. The officers of the Association were instructed to make application to the President and proper officers, and to the governors of the States, for condemned ordnance for the redans and other works upon the battle-field.

Reference is also made in the minutes to appropriations which had been made by the States of New York and Minnesota. That of New York, of $6000, appears never to have been paid, but that of Minnesota, of $1000, was paid the following year to Governor Hartranft,


of Pennsylvania, and handed by him to the Association.

At a subsequent meeting, held May 20, 1873, at which were present Messrs. McConaughy, Arnold, Danner, Buehler, Horner, Schick, and Krauth, resident directors, a resolution was passed that Dr. J. Rutherford Wooster be for the present relieved of his duties as co-operating agent under the direction of Mr. McConaughy, the actuary, and the thanks of the Board were tendered Dr. Wooster for the energy and zeal which he had directed to the work of co-operation. At this meeting, General Charles K. Graham, of New York, was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of H. N. McAlister, Esq.

Resolutions were passed instructing the officers to continue their exertions in behalf of the memorial effort, and to procure the erection on the field of an historical structure, in high art, as a memorial tribute to the Army of the Potomac, to be surmounted with an equestrian statue of Major-General George Gordon Meade, the commander-in-chief.

On July 26, 1873, a meeting was held, which was attended by the resident members, at which it was resolved that the actuary be authorized to receive the co-operation of Dr. J. Rutherford Wooster, and to accept his overtures to visit


the capitals and Legislatures of the States of Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, and press upon the Legislatures of those States the memorial efforts at an early period of their sessions, the terms to be the same as heretofore.

When Dr. Wooster was first appointed to this position, and what, if anything, he ever accomplished, are not shown by the record.

At the next annual meeting of the stockholders, held June 16, 1873, Governor J. F. Hartranft was elected president, ex officio, and the Board of Directors of the previous year was re-elected, except that General Alexander S. Webb, of New York, was elected instead of Mr. Hirsh. The resident members of the Board, subsequent to the election, met at the office of Mr. McConaughy, and George Arnold was re-elected treasurer, and John M. Krauth secretary. At this meeting a resolution was passed that the Board would not be justified in incurring expenditure exceeding $500 for the expenses of Dr. J. Rutherford Wooster in visiting State Legislatures.

On July 19, Dr. Wooster was paid an additional sum of $100, which is the last reference to him in connection with the Association.

At the annual meeting, on June 18, 1874, the same Board was re-elected, except that General


Horatio G. Sickel was elected instead of Mr. Souder.

On August 26, at a meeting of the resident members, Mr. McConaughy, in view of the financial condition of the Association, declined to receive any salary thereafter.

In June, 1875, the Board was re-elected, except that Hon. Edward McPherson was elected instead of Mr. Danner, as it was again in 1876, except that R. G. McCreary, Esq., was elected instead of Mr. McPherson. The same Board was re-elected in 1877, 1878, 1879, Governor Henry M. Hoyt being elected president, ex officio, in the latter year.

There is no record that any of the non-resident members attended any of the meetings of the Board; and there is no record of any meeting of the Board whatever between August 26, 1874, and July 7, 1879, the work in the mean time being intrusted to Mr. McConaughy. At the meeting upon the latter date, on motion of Mr. McCreary, it was resolved that a committee be appointed to examine and report upon the amount, condition, and title of the lands held by the Association, and also to report its financial condition, as a basis of correspondence with the non-resident members of the Board of Directors, and to revive interest in the objects of the Association. Messrs. McCreary, Horner, and


Krauth were appointed as the committee, which reported at a meeting held July 19, 1879, and was authorized to prepare and have distributed an address embracing its recommendations. The report of the treasurer showed the Association to be in debt to the amount of $165.46.

In the mean time other influences for the advancement of the objects of the Memorial Association were being quietly exerted.

In the summer of 1878 the Grand Army of the Republic of Pennsylvania encamped for a week on East Cemetery Hill. J. M. Vanderslice, of Philadelphia, was the Assistant Adjutant-General of the department, and very active in the promotion of the Order at the time.

The scope and possibility of the Memorial Association attracted his attention, as did the apparent apathy or inactivity of those controlling it. After inquiring into the status of the Association and examining the act of incorporation, he determined upon having the Grand Army of the Republic assume control and direction of it. Circulars were issued to the Posts and letters were written to personal friends throughout the State.

At his suggestion, General Strong Vincent Post, No. 67, of Erie, Pennsylvania, had during the encampment erected upon Little Round Top a tablet to mark the spot where General


Vincent was killed, which was the first memorial of any kind erected upon the battle-field outside of the cemetery; and Colonel Fred. Taylor Post, No. 19, of Philadelphia, had placed a small tablet to mark the spot where Colonel Taylor fell while leading the Bucktail Rifle Regiment in front of Round Top.

During the summer of 1879 the 2d Massachusetts Infantry placed a bronze tablet upon a large rock on the edge of Spangler's meadow, with an inscription reciting the facts connected with the historic charge of that regiment across the meadow.

Before the annual election in 1880, about one hundred shares of stock had been purchased by Posts of the Grand Army and individuals in sympathy with it. Just prior to the election, proxies were procured from these stockholders, constituting as they did a majority, and sent to Major Robert Bell, of Gettysburg, with the suggestion to have a board of directors elected in which members of the Grand Army of the Republic should predominate.

At the meeting of the stockholders held June 21, 1880, the following Board was elected: President, ex officio, Governor Henry M. Hoyt; Vice-President, Robert G. McCreary; Directors, General W. S. Hancock, General S. W. Crawford, General Louis Wagner, John M. Vanderslice,


Major Chill W. Hazzard, Captain John Taylor, Colonel C. H. Buehler, Major Robert Bell, N. G. Wilson, J. L. Schick, Dr. Charles Horner, and John M. Krauth.

The money realized from the sale of certificates of stock during the year had been sufficient to liquidate the debt and leave a balance of $515.97 in the treasury.

The Association now commenced its career of active and effective work. At the meeting held July 2, Sergeant N. G. Wilson, Superintendent of the National Cemetery, was appointed General Superintendent of the grounds of the Association, which at that time embraced only the pieces of ground upon Culp's Hill, East Cemetery Hill, and Little Round Top, before alluded to. Major Bell and Mr. Wilson were instructed to have the roads upon the ground put in good order and repair.

This summer, during the encampment of the Grand Army, General Zook Post, No. 11, of Norristown, Pennsylvania erected a shaft to mark the spot where General Zook fell in the Wheat-Field, the marble being taken from the farm of the general's father, near Norristown. The 91st Pennsylvania Infantry also put up a monument on Litt!e Round Top, being the first regimental monument erected after the tablet of the 2d Massachusetts.


The Grand Army of Pennsylvania encamped upon the field for a week each summer from 1880 to 1894, except in 1884 and 1891.

At a meeting held in the head-quarters tent in the camp of the Grand Army, upon East Cemetery Hill, July 23, Mr. Vanderslice, believing that Colonel John B. Bachelder, by reason of the many years he had given to the study of the field, would be an aid to the Association, tendered his resignation as a director and urged the election of Colonel Bachelder in his stead. The officers were instructed to issue a certificate of membership to Colonel Bachelder, and he was elected. The thanks of the Board were tendered Mr. Vanderslice for his services during the past year in promoting the objects of the Association. General Wagner and Major Hazzard were appointed a committee to secure appropriations from the several States for the purpose of purchasing additional territory, improving it, laying out the avenues, and making the battle-field more accessible, and, upon the request of the Board, Mr. Vanderslice consented to act with this committee and to aid the Association in every way possible. He communicated with the influential members of the Grand Army in those States which had troops at Gettysburg, and pressed upon them the objects and requirements of the Association. During the


following winter he visited Harrisburg, and, with the aid of others, secured an appropriation of $10,000 by the State of Pennsylvania.

At the annual election, June 8, 1881, the same Board was re-elected, and at the meeting held July 281 a motion was passed requesting Mr. Vanderslice to meet regularly with the Board, which he did, without voting upon any question. At this meeting it was determined to open an avenue along the line of battle from the Taneytown Road to Little Round Top, the avenue to be sixty feet wide, except where necessary to embrace important points, where the width was to be three hundred feet. It was also proposed that an avenue should be laid out in front of the cemetery wall from the Baltimore Pike to the Taneytown Road, but this was never carried into execution.

During the year, Posts and members of the Grand Army of the several States commenced to manifest an active interest and desire to aid the Association. Several regimental monuments were erected, notably those of the 14th Brooklyn, 124th New York, 17th Connecticut, 90th and 88th Pennsylvania Infantry. At the meeting held November 16, 1881, the terms of the property holders over whose land the proposed avenue passed were not accepted, and it was decided to commence condemnation proceedings


in accordance with the Act of Assembly.

At a meeting held June 2, 1882, arrangements were made for the reception of a delegation of Confederate soldiers, who visited the field for the purpose of locating the position of several commands.2

At the annual election, June 6, 1882, the Board of Directors of the previous year was elected, except that J. M. Vanderslice was elected instead of Colonel Bachelder. John M. Krauth and J. L. Schick were again respectively elected secretary and treasurer.

At the meeting held July 27, 1882, it was resolved to purchase the Wheat-Field; also the balance of the ground on Little Round Top, and to construct an avenue from East Cemetery Hill, by way of Culp's Hill, to the extreme right of the position occupied by the Twelfth Corps.

It was also decided to have sign-boards painted to locate as nearly as possible the positions of the Pennsylvania and the 1st Minnesota regiments, and to also mark the prominent points on the battle-field.

The placing of these cheap boards had the desired effect. Visitors from other States, in passing over the field, would inquire with indignation whether there were no other troops than Pennsylvanians engaged in the battle, and, upon


being informed that only the States of Pennsylvania and Minnesota had made appropriations, naturally became desirous of having their States properly represented. Public interest was thus gradually being awakened.

The Superintendent was instructed to have the works upon the field reconstructed wherever possible.

At the meeting held in June, 1883, it being believed that, as the Board of Directors was composed exclusively of Pennsylvanians, it might advance the interests of the Association to have residents of other States again upon the Board, General Hancock, Major Hazzard, Captain Taylor, and Mr. Vanderslice gave place to General Joshua L. Chamberlain, of Maine, General John C. Robinson of New York, General George L. Stannard, of Vermont, and Colonel J. B. Bachelder, of Massachusetts, the balance of the old Board being re-elected. At this meeting Colonel Bachelder was elected Superintendent of Tablets and Legends.At the meeting, August 28 1883, it was resolved that the memorials to be erected upon the battle-field should be submitted to the Board of Directors for their approval of the historical accuracy of the inscription.

During this year an appropriation of $5000 was received from the State of Massachusetts.


The positions of all the Massachusetts commands were located, and it was decided to purchase the ground necessary for the erection of monuments, for each of which the State had made an appropriation of $500. This was the first State to appropriate money for the erection of monuments upon this field.

On January 4, 1884, a meeting was called to take action upon the death of R. G. McCreary, Esq., the vice-president, and appropriate resolutions were passed. Sergeant William Holtzworth, who had been for many years a guide upon the battle-field, was elected director to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. McCreary, and David A. Buehler, Esq., was elected vice-president.

May 15, 1884, a communication having been received from the survivors of the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, informing the Association of their intention to erect a monumental shaft, with suitable inscriptions, upon the field on which Gregg's cavalry division fought, it was decided. to purchase the necessary ground, with the right of access thereto.

A reward of $50 was offered for the detection of any one destroying, mutilating, or removing any property of the Memorial Association, and the Superintendent was directed to properly place notices of the reward.


At the annual meeting in June, 1884, as Generals Robinson, Chamberlain, and Stannard had not attended any of the meetings during the year, Messrs. Hazzard, Vanderslice, and David A. Buehler were elected in their stead, the balance of the Board being re-elected, as were the various officers.

At the meeting of the Board held October, 1884, General Wagner reported that he had corresponded with General S. W. Crawford as to the transfer to the Memorial Association of his land in front of Little Round Top, upon which the Pennsylvania Reserves had fought, but without success, as the general said that he had made other provision, and could not do it.

General Wagner and Mr. Vanderslice were appointed a committee to have maps of the battle-field printed, showing the land owned by the Association. On motion of Mr. Vanderslice, a committee of three, to be known as the Committee on Legislation was appointed, its duty being to correspond with the officials and Legislatures of the several States, urging appropriations, and to adopt other measures to awaken more general interest, especially among soldiers, in the work of the Association. General Wagner, Colonel Bachelder, and Mr. Vanderslice were appointed as the committee.

At this meeting it was decided to open an


avenue from Oak Ridge, by way of Reynolds's Grove, to the extreme left of the First Corps line of battle.

On April 10, 1885, the following amendments to the charter were decreed by the court of Adams County:


"Section 1. The property and affairs of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association shall be managed by a President and a Board of Twenty-one Directors, to be chosen annually by the members of the Association by a majority of the votes given at the annual election, together with such ex-officio Directors as are hereinafter provided for; Provided, however, that the Association shall have power, by by-law or resolution, from time to time to enlarge or diminish the number of elective Directors, if deemed advisable.

"Section 2. The election for President and Directors shall be held annually on the first Monday of June, at Gettysburg; at which election each member of the Association shall be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy; and the Directors so elected shall serve for one year or until successors are elected. In case of failure, for any reason, to hold said election on the first Monday in June, an election may be held on such day thereafter as the officers or executive committee may designate. Public notice of said election shall be given by publication in one newspaper in Gettysburg, Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Pittsburg, at least two weeks previous thereto.

"Section 3. The Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania shall be, ex officio, President of the Association; and the Governors of such States as shall, by legislative


appropriation, contribute funds for the support of the Association, shall be, ex officio, members of the Board of Directors, with power (if unable to be present) to substitute, under the official seal of the State, some one of its citizens to represent the State in the meetings of the Board.

"Section 4. The Directors shall have power to choose from their number a Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, Executive Committee, and such other officers as may be deemed necessary, and to prescribe the respective duties and powers of said officers by resolution or by-law.

"Section 5. There shall be a meeting of the Board of Directors at least once in every year at Gettysburg, at such time as may be determined by resolution or by-law, of which meeting notice shall be given in writing, signed by the Secretary, and sent to each Director by mail or otherwise, at least two weeks before the time of such meeting. And if, at such meeting, eleven of the said Directors shall not be present, those of them who shall be present shall have power to adjourn to any other time as fully as if all the Directors were present; but if eleven or more of the said Directors shall meet at the appointed time, or at such adjourned meeting, such eleven or more Directors shall be a quorum of the Board, capable of transacting the business of the Association. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called, subject to like notice, on the request of the Executive Committee.

"Section 6. So much of the Act of Assembly of April 30, 1864, and the Supplement thereto, incorporating this Association, as may be inconsistent with these amendments, is hereby repealed."

At a meeting held May 5, Messrs. Wagner, Bachelder, and Vanderslice, the Committee on Legislation, reported that the State of Connecticut


had appropriated the sum of $2500 to the Association; Rhode Island, $1000; Delaware, $500; besides making appropriations to the several regiments towards the erection of monuments; and that the State of Indiana had appropriated $3000 for the erection of monuments only.

The appropriations of the several States, and for what purpose, will be given hereafter in detail.

This committee also reported that the Legislature of New York, through the exertions of General Henry A. Barnum, had made an appropriation of $10,000, but that the bill had not been signed by Governor Hill because of some constitutional objection. Messrs. Wagner and Vanderslice were requested to visit Albany for the purpose of removing, if possible, the objections of the governor. General Wagner, in company with General Barnum, afterwards had an interview with Governor David B. Hill, and the governor signed the bill, and expressed a desire to aid the Association in every way in his power.

The Superintendent of Tablets and Legends was instructed to require each organization intending to erect a monument or tablet on the field to have a suitable inscription thereon, showing its historical relation to the battle as to time and service.


General Wagner was appointed a committee to obtain from the Secretary of War as many cannon as possible.The Executive Committee was instructed to purchase all the lands necessary for all the proposed avenues, and also the two small fields south of East Cemetery Hill.

At the meeting in June, 1885, as the amendments to the charter provided for an increased number of directors, the following were elected: General S. W. Crawford, General Louis Wagner, Major Chill W. Hazzard, John M. Vanderslice, Captain John Taylor, Colonel Eli G. Sellers, Pennsylvania; Colonel W. W. Dudley, Indiana; Colonel John B. Bachelder, Massachusetts; General Henry A. Barnum, New York; Colonel Frank D. Sloat, Connecticut; Colonel Elisha H. Rhodes, Rhode Island; General Byron R. Pierce, Michigan; David A. Buehler, J. L. Schick, Colonel C. H. Buehler, N. G. Wilson, Chas. Horner, M.D.; Major Robert Bell, Wm. D. Holtzworth, Alex. D. Buehler, and John M. Krauth, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Captain John Taylor and Mr. Alexander D. Buehler afterwards resigned, and their places were filled by John C. Linehan, of New Hampshire, and Colonel Charles L. Young, of Ohio.

At a subsequent meeting of the Board, held June 16, 1885, David A. Buehler was elected


vice-president, John M. Krauth secretary, J. L. Schick treasurer, J. B. Bachelder superintendent of tablets, and N. G. Wilson, superintendent of grounds. General Louis Wagner, John Vanderslice, General H. A. Barnum, and the resident members of the Board, were selected as an executive committee. N.G. Wilson, W. D. Holtzworth, and John M. Krauth were appointed a committee on location. The following by-laws were then adopted:


"1. At the first meeting of the Board of Directors held in each year after the annual election, there shall be chosen by ballot, unless otherwise directed, a vice-president, secretary, treasurer, superintendent of tablets, superintendent of grounds, and an executive committee of eleven directors, who shall continue in office until successors shall have been elected.

"2. The Vice-President, in the absence of the President, shall represent the Association in the execution of contracts, instruments of writing, etc., and in general discharge all official duties which would devolve on the President if personally present.

"3. The Secretary shall keep and record, in a book provided for that purpose, minutes of all proceedings of the Board of Directors and of the Executive Committee, conduct the correspondence of the Association, send written or printed notices to directors of their election and of all regular or special meetings of the Board, and attest all orders drawn on the Treasurer.

"4. The Treasurer shall have custody of the moneys of 224

the Association, and be authorized to receive and receipt for gifts of money, membership fees, and legislative appropriations, and shall pay out the same upon orders of the President or Vice-President, attested by the Secretary. He shall give bond in the sum of twenty-five hundred dollars, with sureties to be approved by the Executive Committee, for the faithful discharge of his duties, and shall make a detailed written report of all receipts and disbursements during the year, at the annual meeting of the Association.

"5. The duties of Superintendent of Tablets, and Superintendent of Grounds shall be such as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or Executive Committee from time to time.

"6. The Executive Committee shall be charged with carrying out the action of the Board of Directors from time to time, and they shall have power (between the meetings of the Board) to transact all the business of the Association requiring immediate attention, subject, nevertheless, to and in accordance with the general rules, regulations, and policy of the Association which the Board from time to time may prescribe. Seven members of the Executive Committee shall be necessary to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. They shall make report in writing at each meeting of the Board of Directors. The Vice-President of the Association shall be chairman of the Executive Committee, and the Secretary of the Association shall be secretary of the committee.

"7. No salaries shall be paid to the officers or directors, except the Secretary, who shall be paid annually the sum of $100; but they may be reimbursed for expenses incurred by them in attending to the business of the Association."

General Wagner reported that he and Mr. Vanderslice had visited Mr. Whitney and his


attorney in fact, at Glassboro, New Jersey, with reference to the purchase of Reynolds's Grove and adjoining ground, and that they had received satisfactory assurances that the ground would be sold at an extremely reasonable price. Messrs. Wagner, Barnum, and Vanderslice were appointed a committee to devise the best mode of carrying into effect the requirements of the act of New York making an appropriation to the Association. The secretary was directed to write to the Adjutant-General of Ohio, and request that action upon the expenditure of the appropriation by that State be deferred until a committee from the State visit the field and examine the ground. Corporal Skelly, Post No. 9, of Gettysburg, was granted permission to erect a memorial shaft on the spot where General Reynolds fell, the State of Pennsylvania having appropriated $1000 to the post for that purpose.

Messrs. Wagner, Vanderslice, and Buehler were appointed a committee to confer with the Secretary of War as to the practicability of opening an avenue through the National Cemetery to the Taneytown Road. The committee failed at the time to accomplish the purpose, but the avenue was subsequently opened as desired.

Messrs. Barnum, Wagner, and Vanderslice 226

were appointed a committee to confer with the Comptroller of New York with regard to the proper disbursement of the $10,000 appropriated by that State, with full power to represent the Association.

Permission was granted the 2d Maryland Confederate Infantry to erect a monument to indicate its position on the field, subject to the rule of the Association in regard to historical accuracy and inscription.

On motion of Mr. Vanderslice, the following was adopted: That hereafter regiments that shall erect monuments on the battle-field shall be required at the time to mark the flanks of their position whenever practicable; that any regiment notifying the Association of its intention to erect a monument shall be informed by the secretary of the rule in reference to inscriptions, and, upon failure to comply with its requirements, the Association shall have the necessary inscription placed on said tablet or memorial.

On motion of General Wagner, it was resolved that a certificate of membership be issued to the governor, ex officio, of each State that had made an appropriation to the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association. The appropriation of Connecticut of $2500 was received


this year.

At the annual meeting held June 7, 1886, the Board of Directors of the previous year was reelected, except that Colonel Silas Colgrove, of Indiana, was elected instead of Colonel W. W. Dudley. Colonel Eli G. Sellers, of Philadelphia, afterwards resigned to make place for General Lucius Fairchild, of Wisconsin.

At a subsequent meeting, held July 3, the officers were also re-elected, and the Executive Committee constituted as in the past year.

Messrs. Wagner, Bachelder, and Vanderslice were reappointed the Committee on Legislation.

After discussion as to the best means to procure an appropriation from Congress for marking the positions of the Regular commands, the matter was referred to the Executive Committee, with power to act.

The Secretary of War was requested not to permit the erection of any regimental monument or memorial in the Cemetery until the location and inscription had been approved by the Association.

Colonel Bachelder, Superintendent of Tablets and Legends, was requested to forward to the secretary of the Association, for proper record, all inscriptions approved by him.

At a meeting held September 22, 1886, on motion of General Wagner, it was decided to


open an avenue along the Eleventh Corps line of battle.

During this year the appropriations of Rhode Island of $1000, New Hampshire of $1000, New Jersey of $3000, Delaware of $500, Ohio of $3000, New York of $10,000, were received, and the Association was in a condition to do considerable necessary and effective work in the acquiring of land and opening of avenues.

In the beginning of 1887 the Association met with a very severe loss in the death of its vicepresident, David Buehler, Esq., of Gettysburg, who had manifested so much zeal and ability in the promotion of its work during the years that he was its vice-president.

At a meeting held January 2, 1887, Colonel C. H. Buehler was elected vice-president, to succeed his brother. Messrs. Vanderslice and Krauth were appointed a committee to draft a resolution upon the death of Mr. David Buehler.

The following was offered and unanimously adopted:

"Resolved, That the Gettysburg Battle field Memorial Association with profound sorrow expresses its regrets upon the death of David A. Buehler, Esq., who has been its Vice-President for the last three years, during which time his intelligent and energetic efforts, his wise and mature judgment, his courteous and considerate treatment of all


interested in its purpose, have in a very great measure tended to the advancement of the Association and to the furtherance of the great work accomplished by it; that this Association has suffered an irreparable loss in the death of one whose patriotic and loyal devotion to the principles of his government makes his loss a public one, and whose integrity of character, sincerity of purpose, and kindly nature endeared him to all who knew him; that we tender the widow and the family of the deceased in their deep bereavement our sincere sympathy; that a copy of this minute be sent to them and to the public press."

J. A. Kitzmiller, Esq., was elected a director, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Buehler.

At the meeting on February 25, 1887, after hearing Mr. G. W. Conger, representing the Monumental Bronze Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut, who presented an application of that company to erect upon the battle-field monuments constructed of white bronze, the Board, after careful and mature consideration, took the following action:

"Resolved, That no monument or memorial constructed of other material than real bronze or granite shall be permitted on the grounds of the Association."

On motion of General Wagner, the Executive Committee was directed to inquire without delay as to the cost of opening an avenue, sixty feet wide, from the general line occupied by the


Confederate army on Seminary Ridge to the Emmittsburg Road, and, if the funds of the Association would permit, to purchase the land necessary for the opening of the avenue.

On motion of Mr. Vanderslice, Colonel Bachelder was requested to prepare and submit to the Association an appropriate design for a tablet descriptive of the engagement and movements of all the commands engaged in the assault of July 3, by Pickett's, Pettigrew's, and Trimble's Confederate commands, upon the line held by the Second Federal Corps.

The vice-president was authorized to have special officers appointed by the court.3

The Superintendent of Tablets was instructed to require the list of casualties in monumental inscriptions to be in conformity with the official records of the battle, as they appear in the office of the Adjutant-General U.S.A.

The Secretary of War was respectfully requested to furnish the Association with an official statement of the number of troops, by separate commands, that were reported present for duty in the battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 2, and 3.

It being represented to the Association that the 4th Ohio Infantry had contracted for the erection of a white bronze monument before the action of the Board forbidding the use of


that material, permission was granted to the regiment to erect the monument upon East Cemetery Hill.

At a meeting, March 25, 1887, a committee was appointed to secure an office for the exclusive use of the Association, where the survivors of regiments and others having business with the Association might meet the secretary or other officers.4

A letter was received from the secretary of the Ohio Commission, appealing from the decision of the Superintendent of Tablets and Legends refusing permission to carve the Twentieth Corps badge upon the monuments to be erected by regiments of the Eleventh Corps. The request of the Ohio Commission was respectfully refused, and the secretary was directed to suggest that the allowance of its request would lead to confusion, as a large portion of the Eleventh Corps was afterwards assigned to other corps, and the Twentieth Corps did not participate in the battle of Gettysburg.

The vice-president was authorized to file a protest with the Secretary of War against the erection of the monument of the 74th Pennsylvania Infantry in the Cemetery, because the Association was opposed to any command erecting a monument in the Cemetery until it


had erected one in the most important position occupied by it during the battle.

It was decided to open an avenue from between the two Round Tops to the extreme left of the line held by Russell's brigade of the Sixth Corps.

A letter was received from Mr. C. T. Cook, secretary of Pickett's Confederate Division Association, requesting permission to erect a monument on the ground of the Association; and the secretary was instructed to answer the communication and suggest that the Pickett Association should send a committee to meet with the members of the Memorial Association, to confer as to the location of the monument, and, further, that he should inform them of the precedent established in the case of the 2d Maryland Infantry.

At a meeting, May 5, 1887, it was resolved that hereafter regiments erecting monuments on the ground of the Association would be required to locate and place them in the position held by the regiment in the line of battle, but that they would not be prohibited from erecting such markers on the field, to indicate secondary or advanced positions, as the Association might determine.

At this meeting, Colonel R. C. Maury, Captain E. P. Reese, and Major Wm. I. Clopton 233

appeared before the Board and requested permission to erect the monument of Pickett's division where General Armistead fell. It was suggested to this committee that, as the granting of their application would be in violation of the rule requiring all monuments to be on the line of battle, the proposed monument should be erected on the avenue to be opened along the Confederate line, and that a marker be placed to indicate the spot where General Armistead fell. The committee replied that they were not authorized to act, and would submit the proposition to their Association.

At the annual meeting, June 6, 1887, the Board of Directors of the previous year was reelected, except that -- to meet the requirements of the law of Pennsylvania prohibiting the directors of a corporation from receiving compensation -- John M. Krauth, secretary, and N. G. Wilson, the superintendent, were not elected directors, but continued to serve in the capacities named. Captain William E. Miller was elected instead of Mr. Wilson, and Calvin Hamilton instead of Mr. Krauth. Major Robert Bell having removed from the town, his place was filled by Captain H. W. McKnight, D.D.

At a meeting, July 11, 1887, Generals Daniel E. Sickles, H. W. Slocum, Charles K. Graham, and Major C. A. Richardson, composing the


New York State Commission, appeared before the Board and submitted their proposed plan of work in the erection of the monuments that had been authorized by the Legislature of New York. The officers of the Association were instructed to afford them every facility possible, and to acquire any land that might be necessary. At this meeting all of the officers of the previous year were re-elected and committees reappointed. At a meeting, July 12, 1887, the Committee on Purchase of Land was authorized to purchase the house used as head-quarters by Major-General George G. Meade, with the land connected therewith.

The Superintendents of Grounds and of Tablets and Legends were instructed to mark with suitable and durable tablets the flanks of each division.

The Committee on Location was authorized to mark with a suitable tablet the spot where General Armistead of the Confederate army fell mortally wounded while leading the assault of July 3, 1863.

This committee was also directed to remove monuments on the ground of the Association to their proper position in line, wherever said removal was practicable.

At a meeting on July 29, 1887, the Superintendent


of Grounds was directed to open an avenue from the summit of Culp's Hill along the rear of the breastworks occupied by Greene's brigade of the Twelfth Corps.

On August 25, 1887, the officers were authorized to negotiate a temporary loan of $1000 to pay the indebtedness of the Association and to meet current expenses.

September 16, 1887, Colonel John B. Bachelder tendered his resignation as Superintendent of Tablets and Legends, and J. M. Vanderslice, Esq., of Philadelphia, was selected to fill the position.

At a meeting on November 4, 1887, the following names were selected for avenues: that on Culp's Hill to be called Slocum Avenue; from the Taneytown Road to Weikert's House, Hancock; from Weikert's House to the road north of Little Round Top, Sedgwick; from Round Top to Devil's Den, Sykes; from Devil's Den to the Wheat-Field, Sickles; from the Fairfield Road to the Mummasburg Pike, Reynolds; from the Mummasburg Pike to the Harrisburg Road, Howard; from the headquarters of General Meade to Hancock Avenue, Meade.

At a meeting on December 16, 1887, Mr. Vanderslice submitted the following, which was adopted: That the Committee on Location of


Monuments be enlarged to five, and such committee shall have charge hereafter of the approval of inscriptions in addition to their duties as a committee on location. The following were appointed: J. M. Vanderslice, Wm. D. Holtzworth, Calvin Hamilton, Superintendent Wilson, and Secretary Krauth.

Mr. Vanderslice submitted the following rules and regulations, which were adopted by the Executive Committee, and unanimously ratified at a subsequent meeting of the Board on July 3:

"The following rules regulating the erection of monuments and memorials must be strictly complied with:

"1. All persons are forbidden, under the penalty of the law, to place, change, or remove any stake or marker on the grounds under the control of the Memorial Association without the knowledge and consent of the Superintendent of Grounds.

"2. Any one who shall construct any foundation for, or erect any monument or memorial upon the grounds of the Association before the Superintendent of Grounds shall have designated the place and given a permit, will be regarded as a trespasser and be amenable to the severe penalties provided for in the charter of the Association.

"3. The Superintendent shall not permit the erection of any monument or memorial until its location and the inscription to be placed thereon shall have been approved by the proper committee of the Association.

"4. All monuments or memorials hereafter erected must be of granite or real bronze. "5. On the front of each monument must be the number of the regiment or battery, State, brigade, division, and


corps, in letters not less than four inches long, and, in addition thereto, the time the regiment held the position, and a brief statement of any important movement it made.

"If the regiment was actively engaged, its effective strength and casualties must be given, which must agree with the official records of the War Department. If it was in reserve it should be so stated.

"If the same position was held by other troops, or if the command occupied more than one important position, the inscription should explain it.

"All lettering must be deeply and distinctly cut.

"Any statue or figure of a soldier must be so placed as to face the enemy's line.

"6. The monument must be on the line of battle held by the brigade unless the regiment was detached, and, if possible, the right and left flanks of the regiment or battery must be marked with stones not less than two feet in height.

"If the same line was held by other troops, the monuments must be placed in the order in which the several commands occupied the grounds, the first being on the first line, the second at least twenty feet in the rear of it, and so on, the inscriptions explaining the movements.

"7. Where practicable, ground must be filled in to the top of the foundation and well and neatly sodded.

"8. Two copies of the inscription must be sent to the Secretary of the Association, one to be returned approved and the other to be placed on file with the Secretary, and they should be distinct from other written matter.


"As the memorials erected upon this field will not only mark the positions held by the several commands, but will also be regimental or battery monuments, and in most instances the only ones ever erected by them, the Memorial


Association strongly recommends that the inscription be not only historically accurate, but be sufficient in detail to give an idea of the services of the command. This may add slightly to the cost, but it will add much more to the completeness of the monument.

"In the years to come, when the identity of the regiment shall have been merged in the history of the battle, the visitor to this great battle-field will be interested to know just where the troops from his city or county fought, and to learn something of the services rendered by them.

"It is therefore recommended that upon one side of the monument should be stated the part of the State from which the regiment was recruited, dates of muster in and muster out, total strength and losses during its service, and the battles in which it participated.


"It is the desire and determination of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association to secure the greatest possible historical accuracy for the legends of the monuments erected on the field.

"It has been decided by the Board of Directors to adopt the official records of the battle, recently compiled at the Adjutant General's office, as to the strength and casualties of the several commands in the battle, believing that the historical data thus secured would generally be more accurate than that which individuals could furnish.

"The War Department record may not be absolutely correct,--men reported wounded afterwards died, others reported missing were afterwards found to be wounded or killed,--but it has been found necessary at the Adjutant General's office to establish a limit, and that limit is the official return.

"There is nothing in this rule, however, to prevent monument committees from having the record of their commands


revised at the War Department, and any changes furnished officially from the Adjutant-General's office will be cheerfully adopted by the Association. Or if it is known that a soldier reported wounded afterwards died of his wounds, or one who was reported "missing" is known to have been killed, a corresponding revision may be made in the inscription and the name added to a list designated "killed or mortally wounded." Or if wounded only, the name may be changed from the list of missing to the list of wounded, but the aggregate must remain unchanged and a report of the case must be submitted with the inscription.

"If monument committees add names of other battles, they must assume the responsibility of their accuracy, and the official name of the battle adopted at the War Department must be given. Such list it is desirable should be preceded by the date of the muster in and followed by the date of the muster out of the regiment.

"Deep and solid foundations are of the utmost importance. A strata of rock comes very near the surface on many parts of the field. Where it does not, a few dollars additional will secure a permanent and satisfactory foundation. A few dollars saved from the foundation may jeopardize the entire structure.

"The flank stones placed with the number of the regiment cut on the faces nearest the monument will readily determine the alignment.

"Permanence and durability in lettering should be the aim. Whether the letter is sunk or raised, it should be deep and sharp, that it may be easily read, and particularly that it may withstand the ravages of time.

"Each monument should stand high enough to secure ready drainage. No more proper setting or finish can be given it than a carpet of good sod, well enriched. The pleasing effect of a beautiful monument may be entirely


neutralized by untidy surroundings, and if not put in order at first it will seldom be done afterwards.

"Attest: JOHN M. KRAUTH, Secretary."

The secretary was directed to have these rules and regulations printed in circular form, and to furnish a supply to all State commissions contemplating the erection of monuments upon the field, with the request to transmit copies to the several regimental organizations and to those applying for the same.

The superintendent was directed to open an avenue from a point on Hancock Avenue, near Weikert's Lane, by way of the line of Nevin's brigade of the Sixth Corps, and of McCandless's brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves.

The Committee on Purchase of Land was authorized to purchase the ground occupied by Neill's brigade of the Sixth Corps, on the extreme right of the line on Wolf's Hill and the superintendent was instructed to open a driveway thereto.

The superintendent was also authorized, in addition to marking the flanks of the divisions, to place, at the intersection of all driveways and avenues, index boards stating the troops occupying the respective lines.

During this year the appropriation of the


State of Maine of $2500 was the only one received by the Association, and on March 23, 1888, the officers were authorized to borrow, temporarily, the sum of $5000, with which to carry on the work.

At a meeting, April 10, 1888, General John P. Taylor, General J. P. S. Gobin, Colonel John P. Nicholson, Colonel R. Bruce Ricketts, and Lieutenant Samuel Harper, composing the Pennsylvania State Commission, met with the Board for conference with reference to the erection of the monuments of the Pennsylvania commands for which the Legislature of the State had recently made a liberal appropriation. After consultation the Board and the Commissioners went over the field together, and it was decided to purchase the ground yet required for monuments of six infantry regiments, six cavalry regiments, and one battery.

At the annual meeting on June 4, 1888, the following Board was elected: General S. W. Crawford, General Louis Wagner, J. M. Vanderslice, Esq., Major Chill W. Hazzard, Captain Wm. E. Miller, of Pennsylvania; General Henry A. Barnum, New York; Colonel Frank D. Sloat, Connecticut; Colonel Charles L. Young, Ohio; John C. Linehan, New Hampshire; General Lucius Fairchild, Wisconsin; Major John P. Rea, Minnesota; Colonel


Wheelock G. Veazey, Vermont; Colonel George C. Briggs, Michigan; Colonel John B. Bachelder, Massachusetts; and Colonel C. H. Buehler, Sergeant W. D. Holtzworth, Sergeant J. A. Kitzmiller, Sergeant Calvin Hamilton, Captain H. W. McKnight, D.D., S. Mc. Swope, Esq., and J. L. Schick, Esq., of Gettysburg.

The Board as elected this year, with the exception of Major Rea and Captain Miller, continued to serve until 1895, unchanged, except by the deaths of Generals Crawford and Barnum, Colonel Bachelder, and Mr. Holtzworth.

At the meeting of July 3, 1888, the officers and committees of the previous year were re-elected.

The committee of the 9th New York Cavalry appeared before the Board and established, to the entire satisfaction of those present, that that regiment fired the first shot of July 1, 1863.

A committee of the survivors of the 72d Pennsylvania Infantry appeared and protested against having the regimental monument located in the second line of battle, on the crest of the ridge at the "copse of trees," and requested permission to place it in the front line. On motion of Colonel Bachelder, the Committee on Location was instructed to locate the principal monument of the 72d Pennsylvania Infantry on the line of battle occupied by it on the crest


of the ridge, in compliance with the rules of this Association, and the regiment was authorized to place a marker at the advanced position obtained by it, with a proper inscription, subject to the approval of the committee on inscriptions.

It is to be regretted that, although the Association was able to satisfactorily remove any objections that were at any time raised by committees and others representing any of the other 309 Federal regiments and batteries, it was unfortunately unable to harmonize the difference between it and the committee representing the 72d Pennsylvania Infantry, which resulted in long and costly litigation instituted by the regiment. Eventually the Supreme Court, without going into the merits of the case, decided in favor of the regiment, upon a bare technicality, and it was able to place its monument at the stone wall at a point where a section of Cushing's battery had been posted, and where, after the disabling of the battery, General Armistead and some of his command crossed, and to which the regiment with others advanced in the final repulse of the assault. This was done notwithstanding that the same regiment, when represented by a committee on which was the adjutant-general of the brigade to which the regiment belonged, had previously, when


there were no rules regulating the matter, placed a monument on the very line designated by the Association as the proper one, and where the regiment had so gallantly stood and had suffered so fearfully. This, however, as has been stated, was the only trouble or unpleasant difference that the Association had in its difficult and arduous work of properly marking the field, and it had the gratification of knowing that its action in this instance was approved by all the officers of the brigade, including General Webb, its commander, and of the division, and by all others correctly informed upon the subject.

At this meeting, upon motion of General Fairchild, it was resolved that corps, divisions, and other organizations which participated in the battle, should be requested to erect on the battle-field an appropriate memorial commemorative of the patriotic services of officers who distinguished themselves.

General James S. Robinson, of Ohio, appeared before the Board and protested against the Association naming the avenue along the Eleventh Corps line Howard Avenue, and requested that it be called the Eleventh Corps Avenue. A letter was read from Colonel D. Lee, secretary of the Ohio Commission, to the same effect. Upon motion of General


Fairchild, the naming of the avenues was postponed.

The rules adopted by the Executive Committee on December 16, 1887, were ratified, and, on motion of General Barnum, the Superintendent of Grounds was instructed to rigidly enforce the rules, unless authorized by the Executive Committee to modify them.

The Executive Committee was directed to take such action as might be necessary to acquire and vest in the United States good and sufficient title to the positions occupied by the several commands of the regular army.

The committee was also directed to open an avenue along the line occupied by Kilpatrick's cavalry division from Round Top to the Emmittsburg Road and one along the line of the Confederate army from the Hagerstown to the Emmitsburg Road.

It was also ordered that all cannon that had been donated by the War Department, which was available, should be brought to the field at once.

On July 27, 1888, it was decided to plant 125 trees on the denuded portion of Zeigler's Grove, in order to restore it as nearly as possible to the condition in which it was during the battle.

During this year $8600 were received from New York, $2000 from Ohio, $1500 from Vermont, $2500 from Michigan, and $1500 from


Wisconsin; and on November 23 the officers were directed to borrow the sum of $4000 from the bank of Gettysburg.

At the annual meeting, June 3, 1889, the Board of Directors of the previous year was re-elected, except that General Slocum, of New York, was elected instead of Major Rea, of Minnesota. and Hon. Edward McPherson, of Gettysburg, instead of William Holtzworth, deceased.

At a subsequent meeting of the board, on September 10, 1889, the officers and committees were also re-elected.

Captains W. E. Miller and S.C. Wagner, of the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, were appointed a committee to locate and lay out the proposed avenues along the line of General Gregg's cavalry division.

The Superintendent of Grounds was instructed to have the monuments of the Massachusetts regiments, erected at the "copse of trees," removed to their proper positions, and also that of the 5th New York Cavalry to its position in support of Elder's United States battery.

After the transaction of other routine business, the Board, upon the invitation of Governor Beaver, adjourned to attend the exercises of the dedication of the Pennsylvania monuments.


At a meeting, September 11, Colonel Briggs, of Michigan, offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted.

"That it is the sense of this Association that the Congress of the United States should authorize the purchase of such land as may be necessary to open avenues and driveways along the whole line of battle occupied by the Army of Northern Virginia during the battle of Gettysburg, and that the positions occupied by the several divisions, brigades, and regiments of such army should be marked with tablets.

"That a copy of this minute be communicated to each member of Congress."

The Superintendent of Grounds was authorized to open a drive-way from Reynolds Avenue, on the summit of Oak Ridge past the monuments of the 104th New York and 13th Massachusetts Infantry, to the Mummasburg Road; also to open a road-way, sixty feet wide, to the Custer cavalry brigade monument. The secretary was directed to confer with the New York and Ohio Monument Commissions relative to the removal of the monuments of the 29th Ohio and 122d New York.

During this year the only appropriation received was one of $20,000 from Pennsylvania. At a meeting, May 27, 1890, Calvin Hamilton, Superintendent of the National Cemetery, was elected secretary to fill the vacancy caused


by the death of John M. Krauth, Esq. Messrs. Swope, Kitzmiller, and Hamilton were appointed a committee to draft suitable resolutions to be presented at the annual meeting of the Board.

Messrs. Corbin and Harrington, of the New Jersey Monument Committee, met with the Board, and asked the privilege of making certain improvements in the ground about the several New Jersey monuments, as well as in the structures themselves, which was granted.

The Committee on Purchase of Land was authorized to purchase that portion of the Peach Orchard required for the erection of the monuments of the several regiments engaged there.

At a full meeting of the Board, September 3, 1890, the officers and committees of the Board were re-elected. At this meeting, Hon. S. Mc. Swope read the following resolutions relative to the death of John M. Krauth, Esq., which were unanimously adopted.

"In June, 1872, John M. Krauth was elected a director of the Memorial Association, and from that time until his death, May 10, 1890, he was its able and efficient secretary. That since 1880 this Association has effected its great, its trying, and its commendable work, that of locating with historical accuracy and almost universal acceptance all the regimental and other memorials erected on


this field; in the acceptance by the Association of all these memorials, in the purchase of grounds, in the care and attention given to visitors who came here for data and information, and in all the varied activities of our Association, we have been exceptionally helped by the unselfish, patriotic, and modest candor and the untiring correspondence and aid of Mr. Krauth.

"In our previous sessions he was always with us; his post was always filled. His genial presence was a comfort and pleasure, and his counsel and fund of useful information were always available. To-day we miss him, yet in the very face of this loss we feel like rejoicing that God did not call him hence until his great aid and assistance had helped us to happily consummate the above-mentioned and other very difficult tasks.

"That we testify to his modesty as a man, his unselfishness as a soldier, his fidelity as our secretary, and his worth as a companionable co-worker and friend.

"Resolved, That a copy of this minute be spread upon the records of the Association. That they also be published in the Gettysburg papers, and that a copy be sent to his bereaved family."

The Board adjourned to visit the field and harmonize the difference between the representatives of the 12th New Jersey and 111th New York Regiments, of Hays's division, Second Corps, relative to the location of the monument of the latter regiment.

After hearing the several participants on the ground, on which they had fought twenty-seven years before, it was decided that the 12th New Jersey was entitled to the line as indicated by


its right and left flank markers, and that the 111th New York should be permitted to place its monument at the termination of the right flank of the 12th New Jersey, to enable it to take advantage of the large boulder for a foundation. This decision was accepted with great cheerfulness on the part of the representatives of both regiments.

On October 3, 1890, the officers were authorized to borrow the sum of $2000. During this year the only appropriation received was one of $1000 from Vermont.

At a meeting, May 10, 1891, Colonel Bachelder submitted the plan for the High-Water-Mark tablet, to be erected at the "copse of trees," which was approved.

At the annual meeting of the stockholders, June 2, 1891, the Directors were all re-elected.

At a meeting of the Board, on August 25, 1891, the officers and committees of the previous year were re-elected. At this meeting, General E. H. Rhodes, representing the governor of Rhode Island, General Stryker, the governor of New Jersey, and Colonel A. E. Lee, the governor of Ohio, were present.

General Barnum and Colonels Brigg's and Young were appointed a committee to confer with the governor and legislative authorities of Indiana, with the view of getting an appropriation


from that State, to compensate the Association for the purchase of ground on which the seven Indiana monuments stand, and to defray the expenses of maintenance, etc.

At this meeting, Colonel Buehler, the vice-president, submitted a very lengthy and satisfactory report, bearing upon the litigation of the 72d Pennsylvania Infantry with the Association.

W. C. Sheely, Esq., representing the Gettysburg Electric Railway, appeared before the Board and asked the right of way along the several avenues on the Association's ground. On motion of S. Mc. Swope, Esq., the request was not granted, and the secretary was directed to so notify the company.

On motion of Mr. McPherson, the following committee was appointed to devise a plan of raising means for the future maintenance of the field: Generals Sickles, Barnum, and Wagner, Colonels Veazey, Briggs, and Bachelder, and Mr. McPherson. Colonel Bachelder was requested to communicate with the quartermaster-general of the army, and urge the importance of opening an avenue through the National Cemetery from the Baltimore Pike to the Taneytown Road. The only appropriation of this year was one of Illinois of $600.

At a meeting held January 5, 1892, the Executive Committee passed a resolution of remonstrance


to the court against the granting of a license for the sale of intoxicating liquors at Round Top Park, adjoining the grounds of the Association.

At the annual meeting of the stockholders, June 6, 1892, the Board of Directors was re-elected, except that General Joseph B. Carr was elected instead of General Henry A. Barnum, deceased, and that General Daniel E. Sickles was elected instead of Calvin A. Hamilton, who had resigned to accept the position of secretary, and Dr. C. E. Goldsborough was elected instead of Captain Miller.

At a subsequent meeting, on September 16, 1892, the officers and committees of the previous year were re-elected.

General J. B. Carr was placed on the committee on the future maintenance of the field in place of General Henry A. Barnum, deceased. Mr. Swope read the following resolutions on the death of General Barnum, which, after remarks on his life and character by General Carr and Mr. Vanderslice, were adopted by a rising vote.

"WHEREAS, Since the last annual meeting of our Association, death has removed from any further deliberations with us that brave and gallant soldier, that true and good citizen, and that courteous and chivalric gentleman, Major-General Henry A. Barnum; therefore, be it


"Resolved, That since his membership in this Association, General Barnum has always been one of our most willing, earnest workers.

"That, although at a sacrifice to himself, when others less interested than he would remain away, he was almost always present, and at our regular and special meetings his chair was rarely vacant. That his soldierly service, sacrifice, and suffering for his country, which never ended until his death, seemed to excite in him a special interest in the work of the Association, and we hereby most cheerfully acknowledge the great assistance and aid rendered by him in the work we have so nearly completed.

"That his military knowledge and marked sympathy for the purpose intended by the creation of our Association made him not only a useful and valued member, but that his pleasant, genial, and courteous manner made him a most companionable co-worker and an affectionate and loved friend.

"In appreciation of his work, and in testimony of our loss of so valued a member and friend, be it also

"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the Association, that they also be published in the Gettysburg and New York papers, and the National Tribune, and that a copy or' the same be sent to his afflicted family."

At a meeting, June 31, 1893, General David McM. Gregg was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of General S. W. Crawford. Several communications were read from the War Department relative to procuring ground for the monuments of the United States Regulars, and the Board resolved to


transfer land to the general government necessary for sites for monuments of the regular troops, with right of way thereto.

At a meeting, May 19, 1893, the officers were directed to petition the Legislature of Pennsylvania that in case it should pass the bill granting the right of eminent domain to electric railways, it should exempt the battle-field of Gettysburg from its operations.

The Board also placed upon record its protest against the construction of an electric railway over the field.

At the annual meeting of the stockholders, on June 5, the Board of Directors was reelected, and at a subsequent meeting of the Board the officers were also re-elected.

At a meeting on July 4, 1893, General Wagner submitted the following:

"That the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association does hereby condemn the land covered by avenues which have been projected but not opened by the Association, and that the officers of the Association are hereby authorized and directed to purchase the lands from the owners thereof and if the purchase cannot be made, to file the necessary petitions for a jury to assess damages for the land so taken and to execute the required bond for the payment of such damages."

The secretary was directed to make a requisition on the Chief of Ordnance, United States


army, for 880 shells for 12-pounder guns and 270 cylindrical shells for 3-inch rifles, under the Act of March 3, 1873, and request that they be turned over to the quartermaster-general of Washington, D.C. for use in marking the positions of the commands in the regular army.

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, December 18, 1893, Colonel Bachelder was authorized to receive all the cannon turned over to the Memorial Association by the Secretary of War, under the Act of Congress approved March 3, 1873, which was not actually in possession of the Association, and he was instructed to deliver them to the United States Battle-field Commission, for the purpose of marking the battle-field.

At the annual meeting on June, 4, 1894, the Board of Directors was re-elected, the officers and committees being subsequently also re-elected.

On August 21, 1894, Messrs. McPherson and Kitzmiller were appointed a committee to inquire into the feasibility of transferring the property belonging to the Association to the United States government, and to report at a meeting to be held October 3, 1894.

At a meeting of the full Board, on October 3, 1894, this committee reported in favor of transferring the 600 acres of land owned by the Association,


with 17 miles of avenue constructed thereon, giving access to 320 monuments which had been erected by the various States and regimental associations, to the United States government, and the Executive Committee was authorized to communicate with the stockholders and secure their written consent to the transfer.

General Sickles called the attention of the Board to the death of Major-GeneraI H. W. Slocum, and suggested that a suitable minute of the same be made and recorded in the minutes of the Association and communicated to the widow of the deceased.

The president appointed General Sickles and Hon. Edward McPherson to prepare the said minute.

At a meeting held May 22, 1895, at which the following were present: Vice-President Colonel C. H. Buehler, Generals Daniel E. Sickles and Alex S. Webb, of New York; D. McM. Gregg and Louis Wagner, of Pennsylvania; Colonel Frank D. Sloat, of Connecticut; Charles L. Young, of Ohio; George C. Briggs, of Michigan; W. G. Veazey, of Vermont; J. M. Vanderslice, Esq., Hon. Ed. McPherson, S. Mc. Swope, Esq., J. A. Kitzmiller, Esq., Dr. C. E. Goldsborough, J. L. Schick, Esq., Calvin Hamilton, Secretary; also Colonel John P. Nicholson,


Major W. M. Robins, and Major C. A. Richardson, constituting the United States Board of Battle-field Commissioners,--resolutions were passed instructing the officers to execute, under the corporate seal, good and sufficient deeds of conveyance to the United States government of all lands owned by the Association, and of rights of way and easements belonging to it or in any way connected with or pertaining to such lands. Colonel Nicholson and General George S. Greene, of New York, were elected directors to fill the vacancies caused by the deaths of Colonel John B. Bachelder and General Joseph B. Carr.

On motion of General Wagner, the Legislature of Pennsylvania, then in session, was respectfully requested to pass and the governor to approve the Act vesting in the United States government joint jurisdiction with the Commonwealth over such lands as may be necessary for a National Park at Gettysburg.

On motion of Mr. Vanderslice, it was

"Resolved, That the Board express its grateful appreciation of the generous support accorded the Association by the several States, by their appropriations to it, and by the erection of appropriate monuments to mark the positions upon the field of their several organizations."

Colonel Nicholson moved that a carefully prepared resolution of thanks be tendered


Colonel C. H. Buehler. Colonel Nicholson was instructed to prepare a resolution in accordance with his motion.

General Wagner moved that the thanks of the Association be extended to the secretary and treasurer of the Association for the services they had rendered.

On motion of Colonel Nicholson, the thanks of the Association were tendered J. M. Vanderslice, Esq., for the efficient service he had rendered during his many years of active work in the Association and as secretary of the Committee on Inscriptions.

General Sickles moved that a history of the Association be published, which motion was adopted.

There being no further business, the Board adjourned to partake of a banquet which had been prepared for this final meeting. This was the last meeting held by the Board of Directors.

Colonel C. H. Buehler, who had succeeded his brother, David A. Buehler, Esq., as vice-president, on January 29, 1887, and had served continuously and faithfully until the last meeting, died shortly thereafter, his loss being lamented by those who had served with him in the Association, as it was by the citizens of the town and by all who knew him and greatly appreciated his worth as a soldier and citizen.



General John W. Geary, Governor of Pennsylvania, President, deceased 1872

David McConaughy, Gettysburg, Vice-President 1872-1879

Henry C. Carey, Esq., Philadelphia, deceased 1872-1879

General J. Watts De Peyster, New York 1872-1879

Wm. M. Hirsh, Gettysburg, deceased 1872-1879

Hon. A. D. Heister, Pennsylvania, deceased 1872-1874

Joel B. Danner, Gettysburg, deceased 1872-1874

George Arnold, Gettysburg, deceased 1872-1879

Alexander D. Buehler, Gettysburg 1872-1879

Charles Horner, M.D., Gettysburg, deceased 1872-1879

J. Lawrence Schick, Esq., Gettysburg 1872-1879

John M. Krauth, Esq., Gettysburg, deceased 1872-1879

Edward Souder, Gettysburg, deceased 1872-1873

H. N. McAllister, Esq., Gettysburg, deceased 1872

General Charles K. Graham, New York, deceased 1873-1879

General John F. Hartranft, Governor of Pennsylvania, President, deceased 1873-1878

General Alexander S. Webb, New York 1873-1879

General Horatio G. Sickel, Pennsylvania, deceased 1874-1879

Hon. Edward McPherson, Gettysburg, deceased 1875

R. G. McCreary, Esq., Gettysburg, deceased 1876-1879

There was no meeting of the Board from 1874 to 1879.


General Henry M. Hoyt, Governor of Pennsylvania, President, deceased 1879-1882

R. G. McCreary, Esq., Gettysburg, Vice-President, de- ceased 1880-1883

John M. Krauth, Esq., Gettysburg, Secretary from 1872 to time of decease in 1890 1880-1887


General W. S. Hancock, Pennsylvania, deceased 1880-1884

General S. W. Crawford, Pennsylvania, deceased 1880-1892

General Louis Wagner, Philadelphia 1880-1896

John M. Vanderslice, Esq., Philadelphia 1880-1882, 1884-1896

Major Chill W. Hazzard, Pennsylvania 1880-1882, 1884-1896

Captain John Taylor, Philadelphia, deceased 1880-1884

Colonel Chas. H. Buehler, Gettysburg, Vice-President

from 1887 to 1896, deceased 1880-1896

J. L. Schick, Treasurer from 1880 to 1896 1880-1896

Major Robert Bell, Gettysburg 1880-1886

Charles Horner, M.D., Gettysburg 1880-1887

N. G. Wilson, Gettysburg, Superintendent of Grounds, 1880 to 1894 1880-1886

John B. Bachelder, Massachusetts, deceased 1880-1881, 1883-1894

Robert E. Pattison, Governor of Pennsylvania, President 1883-1886, 1891-1894

General Joshua L. Chamberlain, Maine 1883

General John C. Robinson, New York, deceased 1883

General George Stannard, Vermont, deceased 1883

William S. Holtzworth, Gettysburg, deceased 1884-1888

D. A. Buehler, Gettysburg, Vice-President, deceased 1883-1887

Colonel Eli G. Sellers, Philadelphia 1885

Colonel W. W. Dudley, Indiana 1885

General Henry A. Barnum, New York, deceased 1885-1891

Colonel Frank D. Sloat, Connecticut 1885-1896

Colonel Elisha H. Rhodes, Rhode Island 1885-1887

General Byron R. Pierce, Michigan, deceased 1885-1887

John C. Linehan, New Hampshire 1885-1896

Colonel Charles L. Young, Ohio 1885-1896

Colonel Silas Colgrove, Indiana 1886-1887

General Lucius Fairchild, Wisconsin, deceased 1886-1896

General James A. Beaver, Governor of Pennsylvania, President 1887-1890

Captain Wm. E. Miller, Pennsylvania 1887-1892

Calvin Hamilton, Gettysburg, Secretary from 1890 to 1896 1887-1890

Captain H. W. McKnight, D.D., Gettysburg 1887-1896

Captain John P. Rea, Minnesota 1888

Colonel Wheelock G. Veazey, Vermont 1888-1896

Colonel George C. Briggs, Michigan 1888-1896

William A. Kitzmiller, Gettysburg 1888-1896


Hon. S. Mc. Swope, Gettysburg 1888-1896

Hon. Edward McPherson, Gettysburg, deceased 1889-1896

General Henry W. Slocum, New York, deceased 1889-1894

General Daniel E. Sickles, New York 1892-1896

General Joseph B. Carr, New York, deceased 1892-1893

C. E. Goldsborough, M.D., Gettysburg 1892-1896

General David McM. Gregg, Pennsylvania 1893-1896

General Alexander S. Webb, New York 1893-1896

General Daniel S. Hastings, Governor of Pennsylvania, President 1895-1896

Colonel John P. Nicholson, Philadelphia 1895-1896

General George S. Greene, New York 1895-1896

During the existence of the Association, from 1864 until 1895, it received,--

From the sale of certificates of stock $9,875.59

From various States by appropriation 96,490.00

From the officers and men at Fort Shelling 125.00

From the survivors of Cushing's battery 25.00

From the 2d Maryland Confederate Infantry 60.00


Making a total of $106,575.59

All of this sum was expended in the purchase, restoration, improvement, and maintenance of the grounds. Less than $10,000 was spent in salaries and like expenses; the only salary being that of $1000 per annum for the last few years to the Superintendent, and the salary of $100 per annum to the secretary, except for three years when he received $400 per annum.

In addition to about 600 acres of land, embracing the most important parts of the battlefield,


and the construction of 17 miles of avenues and drive-ways, the Association induced and supervised the erection of 320 monuments.

Every one of the 313 volunteer regiments and batteries of the Federal army, except the three of West Virginia, has its position upon the field marked by a monument or memorial, and several of the regiments have second positions also marked.

The visitor to the field is impressed by the originality, uniqueness, and suggestiveness of many of these memorials, nearly all of which are of granite and bronze, and, notwithstanding the large number of monuments, there are only four or five instances of duplication of style.

It should be borne in mind that in addition to the aid received from the several States in appropriations for the erection of monuments, the Survivors' Associations of many of the regiments supplemented by liberal contributions the amount appropriated, and there are a large number of regimental monuments upon the field costing from three thousand to five thousand dollars each, and several costing much more.

1 Meeting of July 28, 1881 does not appear in Minute book, unless reference being made here is to the meeting of July 29. However, the motion described here does not appear in minutes of that meeting.

2 See Minutes pages 86 and 87. The reception of the delegation is referred to as a "re-union of Union and Confederate soldiers at Gettysburg". Vanderslice here sheds light on the purpose of the visit of the delegation, which would not be otherwise discerned from a reading of the minutes.

3 It was Resolved, That the officers of the Association be authorized and empowered to make application to the Court to have special officers appointed for the care, protection and preservation of their grounds and the monuments thereon erected. Minutes of the GBMA, page 146.

4 Minutes book documents this appointment as taking place during the meeting of April 19, 1887.