JULY 1, 1863

Other Links to Action on July 1, 1863 on the Gettysburg Discussion Group
"Gettysburg's First Shot"  
Article by Ben Maryniak
"Clash of The Titans" from Iron Men: Iron Will 
The 19th Indiana Book Chapter by Craig Dunn
Buford's Cavalry 
Group Discussion
Culp and Cemetery Hill 
Group Discussion
The Eleventh Corps Line  
Group Discussion
Oak Ridge  
Group Discussion
"The 11th Army Corps on July 1, 1863 - 
'The Unlucky11th 'Article by Scott Hartwig 

Esteemed member contributes:

Today's word of the day (July 1).

1. Capable of being effected, done, or put into practice; feasible. 2. Usable for a specified purpose.
Usage note: Practicable means "feasible" as well as "usable" and hence overlaps in meaning to some extent with practical, which can mean "useful". 

Esteemed member contributes:

" Look at those black hats! That's no militia, that's the damned Army of the Potomac!" 

Esteemed member "Bill Cameron" Wednesday, July 1st 1863:

Today laid in camp until dark when we received orders and immediately was on the march, heading toward Gettysburg. (The farmers along the road sell a great many of their horses for fear the rebels will capture them.)

Luther Furst 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" Letter from Thomas W. Hyde of Sedgwick's staff:

H.Q. 6th Corps
Near Pa. Line
July 1st, 1863

My Dear Mother:

I got through that night from Frederick City very nicely- keeping off the main road, and after that rode 26 miles further on a fresh horse and did not get any sleep till 11 o'clock the next night.

Our march through Maryland has been a triumph. I never saw so much genuine hospitality, nicer people, or our soldiers on better behavior. I am having a splendid time. The rebel cavalry are on all sides of us. I asked the General's permission to drive them out of Westminster, a strong union town that we passed through yesterday and which they entered as soon as we left, but he would not let me. I have to work very hard but never was enjoying myself so much before.

I had a splendid saddle worth $100 presented to me the other day by Capt. Eccleson, Provost Marshall of our Third Division. He took it from a rebel colonel. I bought a $25 bridle and have a very handsome equipment. It would take me a dozen sheets of paper to tell you of the events of any one day now. Yesterday a few of us went ahead and captured one prisoner, sergeant of one of Jeb Stewart's batteries. We expect the fiercest fighting of the war before long.

No time to write more. Anxiously looking for mail - our eastern communications cut off. We have marched 100 miles in the last five days and I have ridden 250, and have forgotten what fatigue is - am thin but tough.

With much love.

Your affectionate son,

P.S. - To give you some idea of an army - our Corps of 16,000 men with its wagons takes six hours to get in motion, and on the road is 9 1/2 miles long. 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

July 1st. The enemy are heading for Gettysburg, their cavalry scouting through Chambersburg and to the very outskirts of Harrisburg, where everything is said to be in great disorder. We fell in at daylight, took breakfast, and immediately marched, expecting to meet the enemy towards evening. Passed through Taneytown, and during the afternoon heard heavy artillery firing ahead of us. The cavalry under Pleasanton and the First corps under General Reynolds are in front and reported to be heavily engaged, and so we accelerated our steps and made every effort to reach the battlefield before night, but the distance was too great. General Hancock, however, went ahead to assume command (Reynolds having been reported killed), directing us to follow as rapidly as possible. With few halts for rest to the music of the distant guns, we hurried over the dusty roads, and at 10 P.M. reached the slope of a rocky hill, about a mile and a half in rear of the battlefield. The moment the column halted the men dropped down on the road and most of them fell asleep immediately, exhausted by the march of thirty miles on a July day over roads knee deep in dust. 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

Josiah Favill's _Diary of a Young Army Officer_

July 1st. The enemy are heading for Gettysburg, their cavalry scouting through Chambersburg and to the very outskirts of Harrisburg, where everything is said to be in great disorder. We fell in at daylight, took breakfast, and immediately marched, expecting to meet the enemy towards evening. Passed through Taneytown, and during the afternoon heard heavy artillery firing ahead of us. The cavalry under Pleasanton and the First corps under General Reynolds are in front and reported to be heavily engaged, and so we accelerated our steps and made every effort to reach the battlefield before night, but the distance was too great. General Hancock, however, went ahead to assume command (Reynolds having been reported killed), directing us to follow as rapidly as possible. With few halts for rest to the music of the distant guns, we hurried over the dusty roads, and at 10 P.M. reached the slope of a rocky hill, about a mile and a half in rear of the battlefield. The moment the column halted the men dropped down on the road and most of them fell asleep immediately, exhausted by the march of thirty miles on a July day over roads knee deep in dust. 

Esteemed member contributes:

from "Gettysburg Culp's Hill & Cemetery Hill" by Pfanz:

The two Generals conferred until nearly 11:00 PM, expecting to get orders for 1 July from army headquarters all the while. When it became late and the orders did not come, Howard rode the rough track back to Emmitsburg and his comfortable bed. Reynolds drafted a letter to Maj. Gen. Daniel Butterfield, Meade's chief of staff. He stated that he had forwarded all of the information that he had received and then offered an opinion that he had probably developed in his conversation with Howard. If the enemy advanced on Gettysburg and the Federals were to fight a defensive battle in their present vicinity, the position that he would occupy would be just north of Emmitsburg so as to protect the plank road to Taneytown and the left of the army. If he took this position, the enemy then might be expected to try to turn his left by swinging down from Fairfield, Pennsylvania toward the area south of Emmitsburg. That said, his evening closed with receipt of a dispatch from Buford timed 10:30 PM that stated that Hill's corps was gathering near Cashtown at the entrance of the pass in South Mountain eight miles west of Gettysburg, that Longstreet was behind Hill, and that Ewell's corps was apparently approaching from the north. Reynolds digested this information, and forwarded it on to army headquarters. Then he wrapped himself in a blanket and fell asleep on the tavern's floor.

(It is early morning, July 1, 1863, most of both armies are asleep, and we can imagine the quiet moves of pickets and sentries, mixed in with the nightime sounds of the countryside, a nervous horse here or there, the crack of a campfire.) 

Esteemed member Michael VanHuss 

Remininisciences of Carl Schurz
Vol 3 Page 3

I was waked up by a marching order, directing me to take the road to Gettysburg. We did not know we were marching toward the most famous battlefield in the war...When we left Emmitsburg @ 7:00 AM we were advised that the First Army Corps, under General Reynolds, was ahead of us, and there was a rumor that some rebel troops were moving toward Gettysburg, but that was all.

Mike Vanhuss
"The deluded victims of Northern fanaticism and misrule the scores."
Brig Gen Issac Trimble 

Esteemed member Michael VanHuss 

Reminiscences and Letters of George Arrowsmith of New Jersey
John S. Applegate
page 210-211

On the morning of the first of July 1 it (157 NYVI) left Emmitsburg and marched to Gettysburg. On the way they caught the sound of artillery firing. It was the First Corps engaging the enemy...Hearing the heavy cannonading Arrowsmith remarked "There will be warm work today, Doctor." The doctor replied: "you must not go into the fight, Colonel; you are not strong enough." As they proceeded, Colonel Arrowsmith talked freely and spoke of the trepidation usually experienced upon going into battle for the first time. "I have gotten over all that," said he. "I have come to feel that the bullet is not molded which is to kill me". The regiment reached Gettysburg about noon...

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign
No. 267. -- Report of Capt. Hubert Dilger,
Battery I, First Ohio Light Artillery.

The battery arrived at Gettysburg at about 10 a.m. July 1, attached to the division of Maj. Gen. C. Schurz, commanded by Brig. Gen. A. Schimmelfennig.

Remininisciences of Carl Schurz
Vol 3 Page 4

At 10:30, when my division had just passed Horner's Mills, I received an order from General Howard to hurry my command forward as quickly as possible, as the First Corps was engaged with the enemy in the neighborhood of Gettysburg...I put the division to the "Double Quick" and then rode ahead with my staff. 

Esteemed member SYLVIA SHERMAN 

"I was guard at 1st Corps headquarters at the battle. I woke Gen. John. F. Reynolds up at 3 O'clock the morning he was killed."

Thomas A. Dascomb
Co. C 16th Maine 

Esteemed member SYLVIA SHERMAN 

Greetings again: extract from a letter by another participant, to the Adjutant General of Maine:

"I was a member of the 16th Maine and was a member of the 1st Corps who fought the first day's battle, and the 16th Maine was really sacrificed to hold the position while the rest of the army fell back and fortified Cemetery Heights. The whole regiment except about twenty were captured, including Colonel Tilden and others. We held the position so long that they fairly flanked us or in other words surrounded us, and in order to save our flag we tore it up into pieces and distributed it among our boys who were captured."

2nd Lieutenant George Bisbee
Co. C, 16th Maine

Ps. The family still has the piece of flag that George carried with him all through Libby and Danville Prisons. So do many other families who are 16th Maine descendants. 

Esteemed member SYLVIA SHERMAN 

More Greetings!

Hurrah for the light artillery! Here's James Hall, 2 ME Batt, to the Adjutant General of Maine:

"We again bore the brunt of the battle at Gettysburg. On the first of July and the first of the fight, I was the advance battery of the Army of the Potomac and was engaged for more than an hour before any battery came to our assistance, and you may well know we got badly hurt. 36 horses and 22 nen in about one hour and a half - my loss in men was many of them slightly wounded and several taken prisoner so close was the action. We are so reduced in horses that we were obliged to drag two guns off by hand. The boys fought like the devil - never better. You may judge when I tell you that many of our horses were not shot but bayonetted that it was a close an desperate struggle for our guns."

Captain James Hall
2nd Maine Battery 

Esteemed member contributes:

"Harry Moseley Syracuse New York

Feb 22nd 1864

Dear Uncle

I seat myself this morning to write you perhaps my last letter as I am paroled & expect to start home in a few days I am very obliged to you for the kindness you have shown me since I have been a prisoner & should I be so unfortunate as to be again Captured I shall take the liberty of applying to you again. Tell Olaff should he ever be a prisoner not to fail to let me know & I hope I shall be able to repay all someday. The last letter that I recd from Home left all well I am in my usual good health give my kindest regards to your Wife & family & write as soon as you get this & I may get an answer Love to Olaff when you write and tell him I hope to meet soon not as enemies but as Cousins should. With much love and many thanks I Remain your aff Nephew

Sergt F. H. Daggett
Co G 2nd Miss Regt Division 11"

My ggf's cousin had been captured at the Railroad Cut 

Esteemed member TJ Smith 

Good Afternoon All,

The early morning hours of July 1st found Stuart's Cavalry at Dover, six miles from his appointed destination of York. Here he discovered he had already missed Early. Some say this is the first official word of the ANV he had had since June 24th. Early's departure from York indicated to Jeb Lee's plans had changed. He dispatched two staff officers to discover the whereabouts of the elusive ANV.

Meanwhile, he turned his weary troopers northwest and headed for Carlisle. The town is the site of a large U.S. cavalry barracks. Stuart and many of his fellow officers had spent time at this post at one time or another. Stuart's father-in-law had been commandant there from 1848 to 1852.

When they reached the town, they discovered that Ewell's men had already been there. In the wake of their departure Maj.General W.F. Smith and two brigades of infantry had moved into the Barracks. Upon arrival Stuart demanded the town surrender, they refused. Artillery shots were fired. Toward evening a surrender demand was issued again, and again refused. In the interim, Stuart received word Lee was already engaged at Gettysburg. He left Fitz Lee to deal the recalcitrant Smith and headed for Gettysburg.

Hampton's Brigade still guarding the wagon train, was still on the Dillsburg Road. Jeb sent word for him to turn around and move toward Gettysburg. Meanwhile Fitz Lee had fired on the post igniting an officers' barracks and burned the supplies meant for the men quartered there. This was a propitious event for the Cavalry and Lee. Smith and his men were delayed nearly four days waiting to be resupplied. Otherwise he and nearly 2000 infantrymen would have been free to come in on Lee's left flank during the battle.

PS. Brig.Gen. Alfred Iverson was with Ewell in Carlisle. It was a special place for him because it was there he married his wife and had two children. His wife died at the age of twenty-three in Georgia and he mourned her loss throughout the war. Some suggest Iverson became drunk at Carlisle and was either hung-over, still drinking, or overcome with sadness at the memory of his lost love and this is the reason he allowed his men to walk into an ambush on Oak Hill during the first day's fighting. 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

Portion of a letter from Colonel Callis of the 7th Wisconsin (excerpt from Cheek's _Sauk County Riflemen_

"Old John Burns came to the Seventh Wisconsin Volunteers of the Iron Brigade at Wiloughby's Run, west of Gettysburg, on the 1st of July, 1863, after we, the Iron Brigade, had captured General Archer's brigade in the first charge in the morning, about ten o'clock. The old man came up and asked me if that was my regiment. I answered, yes. He had an old flint lock gun in his hands and came to present arms and said, 'Can I fight in your regiment?' I replied,'Old man, you had better go to the rear, you may get hurt.' He replied 'Hurt, tut, tut, I've heard the whistle of bullets before.' I insisted on his going to the rear. He insisted on fighting. I then said, 'Where's your cartridge box?' He patted his pants pocket and said, 'There's my bullets, and here's my powder horn,' pulling an old-fashioned powder horn from his swallow-tail coat pocket, 'And I know how to use them.' 'Well, old man, if you will fight, take this gun,' and handing him a nice silver-mounted rifle we had captured with some of Archer's men, I gave him the cartridge belt. He declined to wear the belt, but filled his pockets with ammunition. At this time nothing but skermishing was going on in our front and he got restless, went toward the skermish line and to it and fought nobly until I called the skermishers in and made preparations to get out of that little end of a V, as we were flanked on right and left. We fought our way out as best we could, and in this move John Burns was wounded three times and I lost sight of him and was shot myself, and John Burns and I were left on the battlefield badly wounded, where I lay for forty-three hours. Burns told me afterwards that his friends took him off home after the Rebels advanced over him and through town.

John B. Callis 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

Excerpt from Napier Batlett's _A Soldier's Story of the War_(Washington Artillery) p.186-187

Unfortunately, Gen. Ewell, while sharing Hay's convictions, thought it better to wait a little, until Johnson came up, and meantime the precious moments, whose value Jackson knew better than any man, are flying.

Johnson gets up finally, and Lee is pressing for an attack. But now, there is a new delay: the enemy appear to be making a demonstration, to one side or the other. At last, this is discovered to amount to nothing. Still the evening has come, and so the attack must be postponed until to-morrow.

Ewell laughed at Hays, when he appeared so anxious to make the attack, and wanted to know if his men would never have their bellyful of fighting - if they could not wait a day. Hay's answer was, that it was with a view to prevent the slaughter of his men, that he wanted to make the attack at once - and was unwilling to throw away their lives if the heights were allowed to be defended by guns and breastworks. But so it was to be. That very night, the Louisiana Brigade, as the men threw themselves despondingly on the ground, (for soldiers know now as well as their generals, when a point is lost or made,) were startled by a rumbling noise, faint at first, but which came nearer. The heavy guns are being dragged up to the crest of the hill, and will tell their own tale on the morrow. The sound of the pick-axe and spade are heard - the enemy are shoveling up breastworks and trenches, which will protect those who are to live. Still useful, when the battle is over, these trenches will answer equally well for the graves of those who are left behind. 

Esteemed member Michael VanHuss 

Reminiscences and Letters of George Arrowsmith of New Jersey
John S. Applegate
pg 211

The regiment reached Gettysburg about noon, much fatigued...An order was given to double-quick march. They take to the sidewalks. Captain Dilger's First Ohio Battery, which was behind, sweeps by them on a swift gallop, it's cannoneers bouncing high in their seats...The men of the 157th swinf their hats in the air with load cheers for the 1st Ohio Battery. They know each other for they were together at Chancellorsville. The 157th Regiment being posted in the field on the right of the 1st Corps,...the 1st Ohio Battery was immediately in its front. The shell from the guns of the enemy flew over the battery and fell in the regiment, doing much injury...The first shot of the Ohio battery flew over the confederate battrery. At this the rebels were jubilant and yelled in derision. Captain Dilger now sighted the gun himslef and fired it. Thje shot dismounted a rebel gun and killed the horses. Captain Dilger tried it a secind time, sighting and firing the gun. No effect being visible with the naked eye, Colonel Brown who was near asked "What effect, Captain Dilger?" Captain, after looking through his glass, replied "I have spiked a gun for them, plugging it at the muzzle."

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign No. 267.
-- Report of Capt. Hubert Dilger, Battery I, First Ohio Light Artillery.

During this heavy artillery duel, the enemy had been re-enforced to eight pieces, of which two advanced [To within] 800 or 1,000 yards, but I finally succeeded in silencing them, with a loss of five carriages, which they had to leave on the ground, after several efforts to bring them to the rear with new horses.

Short time afterward, a rifled battery commenced to play on me, and you brought, at my request, Lieutenant Wheeler's battery to my support, and gave me the honor of taking charge of both batteries. I instantly advanced Lieutenant Weidman's section about 600 yards on our right, on the Baltimore and Harrisburg road, and returned from there the other four pieces of my battery on the left, under protection of Lieutenant Wheeler's fire, about 400 yards.

In advancing, a ditch (5 feet wide and 4 feet deep, crossing the field in our front) had to be filled up, so as to form at least a passage for a column by pieces, which was executed under a very heavy fire. Lieutenant Wheeler followed as soon as my pieces were in position, and we remained here until the enemy's infantry commenced to mass on our right flank 100 yards, supported by about four batteries, which concentrated their fire on us, one of them enfilading our line completely, causing great damage to men and horses, and disabling one piece of mine and one of Wheeler's battery.

Remininisciences of Carl Schurz
Vol 3 Page 7

About 12:30 the head of the column of the Eleventh Corps arrived...they hurried through town and were deployed on the right of the First Corps...The deployment could not be made as originally designed by simply prolonging the First Corps' line, for in the meantime a strong Confederate force had arrived on the battlefield on the right flank of the First Corps, so that to confront it, the Eleventh had to deply at an angle with the First. General Schimmelfennig, temporarily commanding my, the Third division, connected with the First Corps on his left as well as he could...General Francis Barlow, commanding our First Divisiondeployed on his right. I had hardly deployed my two divisions about 6000 men ...when the action very preceptibly changed its character. My line advanced but preently I received an order from Gen Howard to halt where I was, and push forward only a strong force of skirmishers. The enemy began to show greater strength and tenacity. he planted two batteries on a hillside... Captain Dilger, whose battery was attached to my Third Division, awswered promptly, dismounted four of the enemy's guns...and drove away two rebel regiments supporting them. 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Lt Frank A Haskell, AoP:

I saw John Burns, the only citizen of Gettysburg who fought in the battle, and I asked him what troops he fought with. he said, "O, I pitched in with them Wisconsin fellers." I asked him what sort of men they were. He answered, " They fit terribly- the rebs couldn't make anything of them fellers." And so the brave compliment the brave. 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Lt. Elisha Hunt Rhodes, AoP:

July 1, 1863, near Manchester, Md. We have been doing some fine marching for the last few days, making an average of twenty miles per day. We reached this place last night and expect to move this morning. We have not passed through this town as yet. It appears to be a fine little city and as it is only two miles distant I hope to be able to see it. Westminster is the finest place I have seen yet. We passed through its streets yesterday. The Rebel Cavalry moved out one side as we entered the other. The country is beautiful and the people are very kind to us and appear glad to see us. Young ladies stand at the gates and furnish the men with cold water and loaves of bread as we pass. It has rained for a week and the roads are muddy. After marching for twenty miles it is not pleasant to lie down at night in the wet without cover. I am tired-in fact was never so tired in my life. But Hurrah! "It is all for the Union." 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Lt Frank A Haskell, AoP:

At 11 o'clock a.m. the Second Corps was halted at Taneytown (which is thirteen miles from Gettysburg south), and there awaiting orders the men were allowed to make coffee and rest. At between one and two o'clock in the afternoon, a message was brought to General Gibbon requiring his immediate presence at the headquarters of General Hancock , who commanded the Corps. I went with General Gibbon, and we went at a rapid gallop to General Hancock.

At General Hancock's headquarters the following was learned: the First Corps had met the enemy at Gettysburg and had possession of the town; General Reynolds was badly, it was feared mortally, wounded; the fight of the First Corps still continued; by General Meade's order was to hurry forward and take command on the field of all the troops there or which should arrive there: . . .

. . . At five o'clock P.M. as we were riding along at the head of the column, we met an ambulance accompanied by two or three mounted officers. We knew them to be staff officers of General Reynolds. Their faces told plainly enough the load the ambulance carried: it was the dead body of General Reynolds. . . . His death at this time affected us much, for he was one of the soldier general's of the army, a man whose soul was in his country's work, which he did with a soldier's high honor and fidelity.

. . . He died as many a friend-and many a foe-to the country have died in this war.
General John Reynolds was my first Civil War hero, ever since my father showed me his monument at Gettysburg when I was five (1963). May he Rest in Peace 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

Advancing the colors of the 26th NC. on July 1(postwar account of Capt. Cureton, 26th NC)

"I saw Colonel Burgwyn, advancing toward me with the colors in his hands. Colonel Burgwyn asked me quickly if Company B could not furnish a man to carry the colors. I ordered Private Honeycutt, Company B from Union County, to him. Colonel Burgwyn gave Honeycutt the colors and told him to advance, but the poor fellow advanced only a few steps he was shot dead. The colors lay on the ground a few seconds, and Lieutenant Blair and myself both ran to pick them up, but Blair got them first and started to advance them. When I heard the voice of Lieutenant-Colonel Lane say, 'Blair, give me them colors,' Blair handed them to him. As he did so he, Blair, remarked, 'You will get tired of them.' Colonel Lane took the colors and advanced quickly to the front and as he did so, gave the command 'Tenty-sixth, follow me.' He looked back and fell as limber as a rag, I thought killed dead, but not so; badly wounded in the back of the head....

We raised a cheer the Yankee line gave way; we charged to the top of the hill where we found another line, which we charged. They gave way and ran into town." 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" a

Arriving at 10 PM a mile and a half in rear of the battlefield:

"We were ordered to establish a guard, and together with the officer ordered to command it, I endeavored to wake the men to fill the detail, but found it impossible to do so and had to give up. They were utterly exhausted. Zook sent me to report the fact to General Caldwell, who suggested that the troops be allowed to remain in the road for the night, which was obviously the only thing to be done." 

Esteemed member contributes:

But I think this is the strongest positionn by nature upon which to fight a battle that I ever saw and if it meets your approbation I will select this as the battlefield.

This is a very strong position.

Very well sir, I select this as the battlefield.

Hancock and Howard dialogue. July 1, 1863 approx 4:30 PM
As reported in The First Day at Gettysburg, G.Gallagher,ed., pp.85-86, 

Esteemed member contributes:

excahneg between Gen. Doubleday, AoP and Gen. Archer CSA (and now a prisoner):

Doubleday: Archer! I'm glad to see you!

Archer: Well, I'm not glad to see you, not by a damn sight. 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

"The ammunition being about exhausted, the enemy began to press heavily on both flanks. The only alternative was to fall back, the enemy following in close pursuit, driving the division through Gettysburg and pouring in a constant fire. No opportunity was given to reform until the command reached Cemetery Hill, where light breastworks of rails were thrown up. After reaching it, darkness soon closed in and all sounds of battle ceased." 

Esteemed member ( TERRY MOYER) contributes:

Oration by Capt. J. V. Pierce at the dedication of the monument, July 1, 1888 (N.Y. at Gettysburg pp. 992-993)

Closer pressed the enemy. A regiment the Fifty-fifth North Carolina was pressing far to our right and rear, and came over to the south side of the rail fence. The colors drooped to the front. An officer in front of the centre corrected the alignment as if passing in review.

... Wadsworth seeing our peril ordered his adjutant general, Capt. T. E. Ellsworth, to ride in and withdraw us. With his coal-black hair pressing his horse's mane, he came through the leaden hail like a whirlwind across the old railroad cut and up the hill to Major Harney, who gave the command, " In retreat, march!"

As I started with my men to the rear I found Edwin Aylesworth mortally wounded, who begged me not to leave him. I stopped, and with Sergt. Peter Shuttz, assisted him to his feet, and tried to carry him; but I could not, and had to lay him down. His piteous appeal, "Don't leave me, boys," has rung in my ears and lived in my memory these five and twenty years.

Sergeant Shuttz was killed soon after near Oak Ridge. The time spent in assisting Aylesworth delayed me, so I was among the last to leave the field.

Finding the enemy so close upon us and the way open - the route we came in by - I followed several of my men into the railroad cut. A squad of Confederates were at the west end of the cut, behind some rails, and as we struck the bottom of that railroad cut, they saluted us with all their guns, and each one loaded with a bullet. I did not stay to dispute possession, for they evideintly intended " to welcome us Yanks with bloody hands to hospitable graves," and I climbed up the rocky face of the cut, on the south side, and made my way with many of our men across the meadow between the railroad cut and the Chambersburg Pike, crossed the pike into a small peach orchard, and I overtook the colors in the hands of Sergt. William A. Wyburn.

Just as I joined him he received a shot, and fell on the colors as if dead. I tried to remove the colors, but he held to them with true Irish grit. I commanded him to let go, and to my surprise he answered, "Hold on, I will be up in a minute," rolled over and staggered to his feet and carried them all through the fight, and was commissioned for his courage.

... one of my favorite stories.

Terry Moyer 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Gen Alfred Iverson CSA commanding brigade Rode's Division:

. . . for Col. O'Neal's brigade had in the meantime advanced on my left and been almost instantaneously driven back, upon which the enemy being relieved from pressure, charged in overwhelming force . . . and captured nearly all that were left unhurt in three regiments of my brigade.

When I saw white handkerchiefs raised, and my line of battle still lying down in position, I characterized the surrender as disgraceful; but when I found afterward that 500 of my men were left lying dead and wounded on a line as straight as dress parade , I exonerated, with one or two disgraceful individual exceptions, the survivors, and claim for the brigade that they nobly fought and died without a man running to the rear. 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Gen John Robinson USA commanding Second Division, First Corps:

The division held this position on the right-receving and repelling attacks of a greatly superior force, not only in front, but on the flank, and, when the enemy's ranks were broken, charging upon him and capturing his colors and men- from about noon until nearly 5 P.M., when I received orders to withdraw. These orders not being received until all other troops (except Stewart's battery) had commenced moving to the rear, the Division held its ground until outflanked left and right, and retired fighting.

. . . no soldiers ever fought better . . . 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Maj. Gen. Howard USA commanding Eleventh Corps:

At 3:20 the enemy renewed his attack upon the First Corps. . .Earnest requests were made upon me for reinforcements, and General Schurz, who was engaged with a force of the enemy much larger than his own, asked for a brigade to be place en echelon on his right. I had then only two small brigades in reserve, and had already located three regiments from these in the edge of town . . . and I felt sure that I must hold the point where I was as an ultimate resort.

The point where Howard was was Cemetery Hill. 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Gen Schurz USA commanding division, Eleventh Corps

. . . the enemy appeared in our front with heavy masses of infantry; his line extending far beyond our right. It was now quite clear that the two small divisions under my command numbering hardly over 6,000 effective men when going into battle, had a whole corps of the rebel army to contend against.

A movement to the rear became at once necessary, but before any orders to that effect could be transmitted, my whole line was engaged, and the second brigade, First division, whose flank had been most exposed fell back in considerable disorder. The Third Division had meanwhile to sustain a furious attack According to orders it fell back to the town in good order. . . . The retreat through the town, protected by our artillery was effected as well as could be expected under such circumstances, the streets being filled with vehicles of every description and overrun with men of the First Corps. A considerable number of men, who became entangled in cross streets and alley were taken prisoner.

from Lt Col Adolphus Dobke USA 44th NYI:

Regiment was ordered to retreat. Only one third of the equipped men of the Forty-fourth assembled at the cemetery behind the stone fence, and two thirds of the regiment were lost.

from Gen J.B. Gordon, CSA, commanding brigade:

I had no means of ascertaining the number of the enemy's wounded by the fire of this brigade, but if they were in the usual proportion to his killed, nearly 300 of whom were buried on the ground where my brigade fought, his loss in killed and wounded must have exceeded the number of men I carried into action. Neither was it possible for me to take any account of the prisoners sent to the rear, but the division inspector credits this brigade with about 1,800. I carried into action about 1,200 men 

Esteemed member Michael VanHuss 

Reminiscences of Carl Schurz
Vol 3 Page 10

About four o'clock the attack by the enemy along the whole line became general and still more vehement...the slighter on both sides was awful...I received a report that my Third Division was flanked on its left, on the very spot where it should have connected with the First...A few minutes order reached me from General Howard directing me to withdraw to the south side of town and to occupy a position on and near Cemetery Hill.

Reminiscences of the Civil War
John B. Gordon
Page 151

There was no alternative for Howard's men except to break and fly, or to throw down their arms and surrender. Under the concentrated fire from front and flank, the marvel is that any escaped.

Reminiscences of Carl Schurz
Vol 3 Page 12

It has been represented by some writers, Southerners, that the Union forces on the first day of the battle of Gettysburg were utterly routed and fell pell-mell into town. This is far from the truth.

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign
No. 267. -- Report of Capt. Hubert Dilger,
Battery I, First Ohio Light Artillery.

We remained here until the enemy's infantry commenced to mass on our right flank 100 yards, supported by about four batteries, which concentrated their fire on us, one of them enfilading our line completely, causing great damage to men and horses, and disabling one piece of mine and one of Wheeler's battery. Our final retreat was executed in the same manner as the advance, and our infantry falling back toward the town, which could only be reached on one road, I sent all the pieces back excepting one section of each battery, commanding with them the entrance of the town as long as possible.

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign No. 244. -- Report of Brig. Gen. Adelbert Ames,
U.S. Army, commanding Second Brigade and First Division.

The whole division was falling back with little or no regularity, regimental organizations having become destroyed. An order was received from General Schurz, or one of his staff, to occupy the outskirts of the town, but soon after the order came to fall back through it. In this movement many of our men were taken prisoners. The hill in rear of the town was occupied after passing through the town, and in this position the division remained during the two following days, the 2d and 3d. 

Esteemed member Dennis Lawrence 

I got up this morning to get my baking done before any battle would begin. I had just put my bread in the pans when the cannons began to fire, and true enough the fighting had begun in earnest.

What to do or where to go, I did not know. People were running here and there, screaming that the town would be shelled.

My husband advised remaining where we were, but all said we ought not to remain in our exposed position, and that it would be better to go to some part of town farther away from the scene of the conflict. As our neighbors had all gone away, I would remain at home.

About ten o'clock the shells began to "fly around quite thick," and I took my child and went to the house of a friend up town. As we passed up the street we met wounded men coming in from the field. When we saw them, for the first time, began to realize our fearful situation, and anxiously to ask, "Will our army be whipped?" Some said there was no danger of that yet, and pointed at Confederate prisoners who began to be sent through our streets to the rear.

Such a dirty, filthy set, no one ever saw. They all dressed in all kinds of clothes, of all kind of cuts. Some were barefooted, and a few wounded. Though enemies, I pitied them . I, with others, was sitting at the doorstep bathing the wounds of some of our brave soldiers, and became so excited as the artillery galloped through town, and the infantry hurried out to reinforce those fighting, that for a time we forgot our fears and dangers. 

Esteemed member contributes:

from Lt Gen Richard S Ewell, CSA commanding corps:

My loss on this day was less then 2,900 killed, wounded and missing. The enemy had fallen back to a commanding position known as Cemetery Hill and quickly showed a formidable front there. On entering town, I received a message from the commanding general to attack this hill, if I could do so to advantage. I could not bring artillery to bear on it; and, and all the troops with me were jaded by twelve hours' marching and fighting, and I was notified that General Johnson's division, (the only one of my corps that had not been engaged) was close to the town.

Cemetery Hill was not assailable from the town, and I determined with Johnson's division to take possession of a wooded hill to my left commanding Cemetery Hill. Before Johnson got up, the enemy was reported moving to outflank our extreme left, and I could see what seemed to be his skirmishers in that direction.

Before this report could be investigated by Lt. T.T. Turner, my aide de camp and Lt. Robert D Early, sent for that purpose, and Johnson was placed in position, the night was far advanced. . . . On return to my headquarters, after 12 o'clock that night, I sent orders to Johnson to take possession of this hill. General Johnson stated in reply that he had sent a reconnoitering party to the hill, on nearing the summit was met by a superior force of the enemy. Day was now breaking and it was too late. 

Esteemed member Dennis Lawrence 

From _I Rode With Stonewall_ by Kyd Douglas

Hearing that fighting was going on in the direction of Gettysburg, ... General Johnson directed me to ride rapidly to General Ewell and say to him that he was marching on Gettysburg rapidly, with his division in prime condition and was ready to put it in as soon as he got there.

I changed to "Dick Turpin" my Milroy horse, in a twinkling and with a courier was off. I reached General Ewell, without the courier, and found him with a group of officers on a hill, looking at Gettysburg and the surroundings. One of these officers was Brigadier General John B. Gordon, fresh from his part of the fight of the afternoon. I gave General Ewell my message and tried to express General Johnson's earnestness as well as I could. When I finished, General Gordon seemed to second it, saying that he could join in the attack with his brigade and they could carry that hill - pointing to Cemetery Hill - before dark. Gordon seemed to be as earnest as Johnson in the matter. General Ewell hesitated as if if in thought , and then said quietly,

"General Lee told me to come to Gettysburg and gave me no orders to go further. I do not feel like advancing and making an attack without orders from him, and he is back in Cashtown." He then directed me to tell General Johnson, when he got well to the front, to halt and wait for orders. His remarks silenced all about him, and Gordon said nothing further, but Sandy Pendleton, his Chief of Staff, who was standing near, said to me quietly, and with much feeling.

"Oh, for the presence and inspiration of Old Jack for just one hour!"

Yes, it took the battle of Gettysburg to convince General Lee that General Jackson was dead. But it did. 

Esteemed member "Bradley Eide" 

The following is from a letter from Thomas W. Hyde of Sedgwick's staff :

"On the night of July 1st, 1863,...Capt. Halstead, whose turn it was to go to army Head Quarters for orders, says he is not well, Gen. Sedgwick sent me and told me he wished me to go.... I mounted my white horse and, accompanied by Major Biddle of Gen. Meade's staff and a couple of orderlies, set out about six o'clock p.m.... Then at a gallop, past pretty villages and county seats, soothed by the sound and scents of a perfect summer night, we hurried on till approaching Tarrytown about 11 p.m., overtook Maj. Gen. Hancock who was hastening to Head Quarters from the scene of the first day's fight, and from him I heard that the ball was opened, Reynolds dead and the cause in the greatest peril. On to Head Quarters, a mile beyond the town, and there the horses were all saddled and dozens of aids standing about in a subdued quiet unlike their usual demeanor. Reporting to Gen. Williams, A.A.G., I was told that Gen. Meade would see me immediately. I was ushered into a large hospital tent and found I was standing in the presence of a council of the prominent Generals of the Army. Said Gen. Meade, "Gentlemen, we will fight the decisive battle of the war tomorrow." "Where is Gen'l Sedgwick's officer?" As he said this, he took me by the arm, drew me aside and asked in a quick, nervous manner - "Do you know the roads in this country?" "Come here," and drawing me to the table where a large map was stretched out, "Here is the Littletown turnpike Gen. Sedgwick must march his Corps to Gettysburg by that road and, if he can arrive in time, I shall throw him in at the decisive point, and gain the victory. He is now marching on the road you came which takes him out of his way. Tell Gen. Newton to report to me with all possible dispatch to take command of the First Corps. Have you a good horse? The road is not safe. I will send a squadron with you." "Gen''l," said I, "I think I can get through without." "Very well," said he, "act your judgment and remember how important your errand is tonight." So off I started, swelling with importance, but little realizing that had I lost my way or been captured, that the battle had been lost and the fate of the country changed. Upon such little things the destiny of nations sometimes hang. My horse did not flag, and after 15 miles of hard riding I heard horsemen coming in front and, thinking them guerillas, I drew up in the shade, but soon recognized the General's old straw hat and had delivered my message. Back we turned at a tearing gallop and came to the head of the column, now already six miles on the wrong road and pressing on - its rear not yet out of camp. General Sedgwick was acting under orders previous to those I brought. To turn this mass was not easy, but it was soon done, and I found the right road upon which we marched in clouds of dust without halting till ten o'clock the next forenoon...."


Esteemed member contributes:

from Robert E Lee CSA General commanding:

It had not been intended to deliver a general battle so far from our base unless attacked, but coming unexpectedly upon the whole Federal Army, to withdraw through the mountains with our extensive trains would have been difficult and dangerous. At the same time we were unable to await an attack, as the country was unfavorable for collecting supplies in the presence of the enemy, who would restrain our foraging parties by holding the mountain passes with local and other troops. A battle had, therefore, become in a measure unavoidable, and the success already gained gave hope of a favorable issue.

Esteemed member SYLVIA SHERMAN 

From Steven Benet's *John Brown's Body*, Book Seven

You took a carriage to that battlefield.
Now, I suppose, you take a motor-bus,
But then, it was a carriage
- and you ate Fried chicken out of wrappings of waxed paper,
While the slow guide buzzed on about the war
And the enormous, curdled summer clouds Piled up like giant cream puffs in the blue.
The carriage smelt of axle-grease and leather
And the old horse nodded a sleepy head Adorned with a straw hat.
His ears stuck through it.
It was the middle of hay-fever summer And it was hot.
And you could stand and look All the way down from Cemetery Ridge
Much as it was, except for monuments
And startling groups of monumental men Bursting in bronze and marble from the ground
And in curious names upon the gravestones...
So peaceable it was, so calm and hot, So tidy and great-skied.
No men had fought There but enormous, monumental men Who bled neat streams of uncorrupting bronze,
Even at the Round tops, even by Pickett's boulder,
Where the bronze, open book could still be read By visitors and sparrows and the wind:
And the wind came,
the wind moved in the grass,
Saying ...while the long light ... and all so calm...
"Pickett came
And the South came
And the end came,
And the grass comes
And the wind blows On the bronze book
On the bronze men
On the grown grass,
And the wind says
'Long ago Long Ago' "

Esteemed member "Charles B. Schmitz" "" contributes:

I have been researching the 73rd Ohio for the last couple of years. I believe that Richard Nixon's grandfather, also of the 73rd, was killed in the same engagement in which Enderlin won his Medal of Honor. Also killed from the 73rd Ohio was Private Elisha Leake and his brother-in-law Sgt Isaac Willis. Private Leake left behind a wife and three children.

Chuck Schmitz
Pickerington, OH

General Hancock to Colonel Orland Smith, Commander 2nd Brigade of Steinwehr's Division and former commander of the 73rd Ohio, on 1 July, position Cemetery Hill.

Hancock: "My corps is on the way, but will not be here in time. This position should be held at all hazards. Now, Colonel, can you hold it?

Smith: "I think I can." Hancock: "Will you hold it?"

Smith: "I will."