Annual Report of The
Gettysburg National Park Commission

June 30,1921

War Department
Gettysburg National Park Commission
Gettysburg, Pa.
July 1, 1921
To: The Secretary of War:

We have the honor to transmit our Annual Report for the Fiscal year ended June 30th, 1921.

The employees enumorated in last year's report have been changed by reason of some becoming dissatisfied with the wages and sought employment elsewhere. One of the Assistant Superintendents has been retired by the Act of Congress, approved May 22nd, 1920, and was dropped from the rolls August 20th, 1920. A few of the employees applied to the Commission for leave of absence, for a short time, to accept employment at higher wages; those applications were granted to terminate at a time limit, some now wish to return to their former places and positions under the Park Commission.


The contracts and bids are numbered consecutively, and continue the series from the last report with classified lists as follows:

Equipment, material and supplies, Nos. 599, 601, 604, 609, 611, 617, 619, 621, 622, 626, 636, 640, 643, 645, 646, 647, 648, 655, 656, 658, 663, 665, 666, 668, 670, 671, 672, 674, 675, 677, 682, 684, 685, 686.
Renewing piked avenues, Nos. 605, 608, 618, 625, 630, 634, 657, 664, 679, 680.
Piked avenues, No. 653.
Repairs, Nos. 602, 603, 610, 612, 615, 620, 624, 627, 633, 637, 638, 641, 642, 644, 654, 660, 661, 669, 685, 687, 688.
Stationery, printing and office supplies, No. 607.
Monuments and markers, No. 639. Typewriting and stenography.
Fencing and repairs, Nos. 613, 614, 631, 632, 651, 673.
Tools and repairs, Nos. 635, 649, 650, 652, 662.
Miscellaneous, Nos. 600, 606, 616, 623, 628, 629, 659, 667, 676, 678, 681.


The Pennsylvania Memorial needs repairing and as this monument is in the custody of the Pennsylvania Memorial Commission, measures have been recently taken by said Commission with aview to correct mistakes in the construction and to put the monument in good condition. Up to the close of this report nothing has been accomplished in that direction.

A careful inspection of the monuments, etc., on the Battlefield has been made and notes of repairs needed to monuments, markers, tablets, etc., complied which will be placed on the list of work to be done in the Park, and will be added to from time to time, from the reports received, and the necessary repairs made.

Last year monuments were erected at locations as follows:

The Headquarters Army of the Potomac, First Corps, Second Corps, Third Corps, Fifth Corps, Sixth Corps and Eleventh Corps Headquarters. The Twelfth Corps monument and an additional First Corps monument were erected on the sites of the Headquarters; a tablet on each one referred to the proper location, these nine monuments were mentioned in the report of 1920.

Wishing to complete the work and mark all Corps Headquarters of both armies in the Battle of Gettysburg, the Commission called for plans and specifications for monuments to mark Headquarters of the First, Second and Third Corps of the Confederate Army.

Plans and specifications were prepared by Col. E. B. Cope, the Engineer, and locations were selected and the foundations built in the Autumn of 1920; through the winter of 1920-1921, the stone cutters and their helpers got out the granite for bases and dies. These bases and dies have been set up on the foundations and each monument mounted with a 12 pounder bronze Confederate gun.

A bronze tablet on the die gives the necessary information, viz: The Corps Commander, the Division composing the Corps, Commander of each Division, the dates on which the Corps occupied the locality, etc.

These Headquarters monuments are located as follows:

The First Corps, Headquarters marker is located on Section 4, Confederate Avenue, near the Observation Tower, a bronze tablet on the base of the marker points out that the exact location was at a school-house 900 yards westerly. This school-house is in plain view from the marker and was occupied by Lieut.-General Longstreet. The Second Corps Headquarters marker is located on the north side of the Hanover road on the west side of Rock Creek 100 yards from the bridge. General Ewell occupied the house near the marker.

The Third Corps Headquarters marker is located on the west side of West Confederate avenue 200 yards southerly from the McMillan woods; the tablet on the base of the marker states that the farm buildings 600 yards westerly, and in plain view, were occupied by Lieut.-General Hill during the battle.

The entire work in preparing and setting up these markers was done in the most economical manner, they are of a different design from any monument or marker on the Battlefield; the foundation is of concrete, 4 feet in the ground, the top is 6 inches above the level of the ground; this foundation is surmounted by a granite base and die, these are hexagonal in shape and support the Confederate cannon cemented in the die with the muzzle up. A bronze plate with C. S. A. of large letters on it is across the gun at the trunnions.


Colonel L. R. Stegman, Chairman, and Mr. Charles Shaw, Commissioner, of the New York Monuments Commission, visited the Gettysburg National Park July 19th, 1920. They went to Barlow's Knoll and selected a site upon which to erect a statue to Brig.-General F. C. Barlow, this position is marked by a stake and placed in the triangle near the summit of the Knoll. Colonel Stegman in a letter to Colonel John P. Nicholson, Chairman, states that the New York Legislature at the present session was appropriated $12,000 to erect this statue.

The Legislature of Pennsylvania in the last session, 1921, appropriated $20,000 to erect bronze statues to Brig.-General S. W. Crawford and Brig.-General John Gibbon in the Park.


A contract was made with M. & T. E. Farrell, dated July 21st, 1920, to grade and pike a part of the Taneytown road between the north end of Granite School-house road and the south end of the Wheatfield road, a distance of 3,965 feet, the width of the piking to be 16 feet, work to be completed by June 20th, 1921, contract price for the whole work $14,949.00.

The Engineer of the Commission and his assistants began staking out the lines of the roadway on March 21st, continuing during good weather until the side lines and the grade lines of the section had been completed.

The Contractors M. & T. E. Farrell began the grading as soon as these lines had been completed by the Engineer and Charles M. Haner, was detailed to inspect the material furnished and to see that the work was all in accordance with the specifications and to condemn any defect either in material or labor. This section was completed and accepted June 20th, 1921.

The Hagerstown road from the Borough line of Gettysburg to south end of Reynolds avenue, 2700 feet is giving trouble on account of the nature of the ground on which the road-bed was made, the surface cannot be kept uniform, a four-inch surface of concrete might correct this defect, and we intend that a section of this road 100 feet long, in the worst part, be treated with a 4 inch bed of concrete as a test, and we can find out if that will answer the purpose, our own force of workmen could do this in the summer or autumn of 1921.

On May 7th, 1889, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, ceded 14.2 miles of the public roads within the limits of the Gettysburg National Park, 8.29 miles of the roads ceded were accepted by the Secretary of War and piked by the National Park Commission from their annual appropriations for the maintenance of the Park, and on June 26th, 1895, part of the Emmitsburg road extending from the Borough line of Gettysburg, l.e. 8263 feet, by Act of Legislature of Pennsylvania, was ceded and piked by the Commission, a total of 9.85 miles. That part of the Emmitsburg road from Birney avenue to the Peach Orchard and southerly, has not been accepted by the Secretary of War. The Highway Department of Pennsylvania took it and piked a section of this road from the crossing of Confederate avenue to the boundary line of Maryland, leaving that portion between said crossing and Birney avenue, a distance of 3,150 feet improved. This was about the worst section between Gettysburg and the Maryland line. The Highway Department has now taken over this section and made a contract with the Souder Construction Company of Lancaster, Pa., to grade and pike. It has been completed by this Company from the Peach Orchard to the crossing of Confederate avenue. This is a great improvement and restores the heavy hauling to the Emmitsburg road.


Screenings to surface and repair avenues and piked public roads, have been furnished as follows:

Bids Tons
Samuel Robinson furnished August 20th 200
Samuel Robinson furnished February 17th 500
Samuel Robinson furnished May 4th 500
Samuel Robinson furnished June 3rd 500
M. & T. E. Farrell furnished October 7th 300
M. & T. E. Farrell furnished November 10th 100
M. & T. E. Farrell furnished May 14th 500
M. & T. E. Farrell furnished June 17th 500
Total 3100


No gun carriages have been ordered since last report, and none have been added to Batteries already marked with gun carriages and guns, the 410 gun carriages and guns, the 7 caissons, and one extra limber have been inspected and found to have some repairs needed and missing parts supplied, of which many of these parts have been carried off by relic hunters. A list has been prepared and added to the list of work to be done in the Park. No new gun carriages have been placed in the Park this year. Many repairs have been made to those already mounted, also to battery equipment and parts that required to be renewed. These gun carriages need painting and paint has been ordered. Eight new shell stones with 10 inch shells on them have been placed east of Spangler's Spring and seventeen shell stones with 6 inch shells on them have been placed south of Spangler's Spring. These seventeen stones were put in last year.


A contract was made August 12th, with Bushman & Bushman, to paint the five Observation Towers in the Park, to cost $670.00 for labor and appliances. This contract was completed before November 1st, 1920.

A contract was made with Charles Kappes, April 29th, to paint the large flag-pole at Meade's Headquarters, the price was $60.00. This flag-pole was erected by the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, Commandery of Pennsylvania. It is 24 inches in diameter and 160 feet high; the flag is raised every day of the year by the tenant at Meade's Headquarters, who has the care of the flag.

Much pipe-fencing has been painted by the painters employed by the Commission. The cast iron Itinerary Tablets set up through Pennsylvania and Maryland, on a circuit of 80 miles need painting badly. A painter has been sent over the circuit of these tablets and has about completed the painting at the date of this report. The Commission's stable in Gettysburg has been given a coat of paint, also all the Guard Shelters over the field, the fences around the monuments, six wooden tablets directing travel and hauling in the park have been repainted. The painting of the pipe fencing has all been completed except that on Buford Avenue. Three houses on United States Land need painting. A contract was made with Bushman and Bushman to do the work in July 1921.


The following groves have been cleared up and put in first class condition by timber cutters and trimmers of the Artisans and laborers, viz:

The grove on the United States farm formerly Bushman's at the extreme right of the Confederate line of Artillery in the Battle, also the thick bushes and undergrowth on the west slope of Little Round Top, which was clear of bushes during the battle, also the eastern front and summit of the ridge north of Devil's Den.


The mowing parties have their regular routes of cutting grass and weeds in the Park, the area is extensive and they operate so as to cover the whole space without interfering; they use one motor-power lawn mower, one horse lawn mower, side-cut horse mowers and hand lawn mowers. They begin this work as soon as the grass on the lawns, mounds and monuments areas is large enough to cut and continue as long as grass and weeds continue to grow.

There are certain plots of United States land from which the Commission harvests for hay and grain amounting to 22 acres; this is cut and housed by the Commission employees, and furnishes quite an item in the supply for forage for the stable. A new motor propelled mower and a side cut mower, also two hand lawn mowers have been added.


The fencing was continued during the season and material and labor was contracted for in the usual way, the material to be furnished on bids, and the labor according to contract, according to the number of panels erected.

All the post fencing, pipe fencing, miles of which have been erected on the Battlefield, has been inspected and steps have been taken to have it thoroughly repaired and renewed where necessary. This work has been underway during the spring and summer and will be continued until it is all in good condition.


The following banks and mounds have been sodded this spring, viz: The banks of Reynolds Statue on Chambersburg Pike, and banks of Geary avenue, the mounds of the Confederate Corps Headquarters monuments, also have been sodded, preparations have also been made to sod the steep bank at Williston's Battery on the Taneytown road on the section recently piked by M. & T. E. Farrell. Now that the piking is completed and the road open for travel, this can be done by our own force when the weather and conditions are right.


A large portion of this work was made necessary by reckless driving on the avenues. A number of pipe-walls were damaged, cap-stones knocked off and walls broken down. Some of the bridge-walls have been pointed this spring.

A great amount of work is caused the Commission by careless driving through the Park, generally at night. Guard stones are broken, shells knocked off, pipe-walls and catch basins damaged, and cap-stones broken. Where it is possible to find out those parties responsible for the damage, steps are taken to collect the cost of repairs.


There were nineteen farms, with a total acerage of 1400 acres under lease during the year. These were well cultivated and cared for by the tenants. Good crops were raised and a detailed statement of these was made and reported. Repairs needed for the proper maintenance of the building and fencing were made. No new buildings were erected during the year. Only two changes in tenants were made; one at the Wentz house and the other at the Althoff.


The plots loaned the pupils of the Gettysburg schools for cultivation for several years were withdrawn and are now being reseeded to grass. About 25 acres of land including the Wheatfield are being cultivated in order to restore them to grass and put them in first class condition. Some additional land not under lease is being utilized for the purpose of raising grain and forage for the Commission's teams, thereby saving much additional expense.


No action as yet has been taken on the detailed estimate of damage done and work needed to restore this land to its former condition. This estimate was made by request of Colonel Wahl of the Board of Appraisers of the War Department.

No restoration work was done by the purchasers of the camp equipment after its removal. The work needed on the Codori Farm has been taken up by the tenant and a large part of this is again under cultivation and planted in the usual farm crops. This was done voluntarily by the tenant, but it will take years to restore it to its original condition, or as it was when taken over for a United States camp.


The work on the fencing was mostly along the line of repairing old fencing. Only 271 panels of new fencing were erected during the year. The material was furnished and delivered on a bid by the contractors, E. J. Naugle. The fence was erected by James A. Felix, who has done this work for a number of years. 500 panels of new fence were ordered for the coming year. All of the posts were treated with creosote-oil as in the preceding year.


A number of wild-cherry trees that were infested with caterpillars were removed from the field, and where suitable other varieties will be planted instead. 50 trees were planted in the fall of 1920, to replace dead and damaged ones. 25 horse-chestnuts were started and the planting of other varieties, such as black-walnut and others will be continued. Dynamite was used in preparing the holes for planting.


An examination for guides was held on the 14th of February. There were 10 applicants in the class, 5 of whom passed and received a license. The total number of guides is now 93. A regulation limiting the number of trips to three a day, except on legal holidays when four trips shall be allowed was adopted and is working very satisfactorily, under Wm. C. Storrick, in charge.


The Assistant Superintendent, James Aumen in his report details the following:

During the year a number of improvements were made in the Park, among which were the following: The sharp curve east of the tower on Culp's Hill, Slocum Avenue was widened, making a decided improvement. All the curves on Slocum Avenue were treated with screenings and a coat of Tarvia, thereby making a more permanent road-bed.

All the avenues and public roads were improved in the spring, by dragging the loose material from the sides to the center and then thoroughly rolling with our steam-roller making it compact and improving the crown of the road. The avenues especially are now in fine condition.

Many of the gutters were lain in concrete, thereby making them more permanent and better. Stones and shells have been placed opposite Spangler's Spring, and also at the entrance to Reynolds avenue on the Hagerstown Road. Respectfully submitted

John P. Nicholson

Statement of the Condition of the Gettysburg National Military Park,
June 30, 1921

Infantry battle field:

Government owned acres 2,438.60
Private owned acres 11,594.50

East Cavalry battle field:

Government owned acres 40.87
Private owned acres 9,059.13

South Cavalry battle field:

Government owned acres 6.90
Private owned acres 1,320.00

Total Government owned


Total Private owned


    Total Acres


    Telford avenues and piked roads miles




    Earth roads do



Avenue fencing miles 15.00
Post fencing 37.74
Post fencing erected in 1919 and
1920 .
Total fencing do 53.65

Stone bridges 25
Stone culverts 12
Total 37

Steel towers 5
Pennsylvania Memorial Tower 1
Forty-fourth New York Tower 1
Total 7

Monuments erected by States and organizations 839

Bronze equestrian statues 5
Bronze statues on pedestals 28
Bronze statues on monuments 27
Granite statues on monuments 21
Total statues 81

Bronze relief and plain tablets on monuments 191
Bronze tablets mounted in 1919 5
Total relief and plain tablets on monuments 196

Bronze tablets on pedestals 755
Total tablets and reliefs 951

Iron tablets before reported 455
Erected in 1919 13

Total 468

Granite markers on pedestals 323

Mounted cannon, caissons, and limbers 417

Land previously reported, owned by the United States acres 2,486.37
Land ceded to the United States 45.00
Land acquired from Electric Railroad Co. 13.37
Spring & Hotel Co. land 43.00
Total land owned by United States this date acres 2,587.74


No. 895. Headquarters Marker, C. S. A.

No. 896. Cavalry and Artillery Badges

No. 897. Survey and plot of Springs Woods, 45 Acres

No. 898. Flag of the Signal Corps and New York Engineers Flag

No. 899. Headquarters Marker, Third Corps, C. S. A.

No. 900. Headquarters Marker, Second Corps, C. S. A.

No. 901. Tablet on base of Third Corps Marker, C. S. A.

No. 902. Tablet on base of First Corps Marker, C. S. A.

No. 903. Small bronze plate with C. S. A. for Headquarters Markers

No. 904. Design for Headquarters Marker

No. 905. Drawing of Tablet for Cross Avenue


No. 1. Monument marking First Corps Headquarters, C. S. A.

No. 2. Monument marking Second Corps Headquarters, C. S. A.

No. 3. Monument marking Third Corps Headquarters, C. S. A.

No. 4. Section Taneytown Road from Wilkinson's Battery looking

North No. 5. Section Taneytown Road from Wilkinson's Battery looking South

No. 6. View of piking and improvement on Taneytown Road from South end

No. 7. View of piking and improvement on Taneytown Road from North


Gettysburg National Park Receipts and Expenditures for the Fiscal year ended June 30, 1921


Balance July 1, 1920 $6,582.23


M. & F. E. Farrell, Screenings $1,368.00

Gettysburg Springs & Hotel Co. Land 4,300.00

McDonald Construction Co. 85.50 5,753.50

Balance July 1, 1921 828.73


Receipts and Expenditures for the Fiscal year ended June 30, 1921


Appropriation July 1, 1920 $65,000.00

EXPENDITURES Salaries and wages $25,367.97

Renewing piked avenues 3,251.00

Piking avenues & roads (Taneytown Road) 10,763.28

Equipment, material & Supplies 2,618.37

Repairs 1,825.40

Stationery, Printing & office supplies 176.48

Monuments and Markers 56.00

Typewriting and Stenography 346.46

Fencing and repairs 700.10

Tools and repairs 418.99

Treasury settlements, Trans. Warrant #67 480.85

Treasury settlements, Trans. set. Printing #4209 27.26

Treasury settlements, Trans. set. Printing #4368 7.39

T.R " W.D. #4509 42.24

Miscellaneous items 252.89 $46,332.18

Balance July 1, 1921 $18,667.82


Salaries and wages $2,161.07

Balance on Taneytown Road (Farrell) 4,185.72

Screenings furnished by Farrell 3,762.00

Screenings furnished by Robinson 3,000.00

Equipment, Material etc. 651.54

Repairs 113.63

Stationery & office supplies 40.08

Typewriting & Stenography 37.45

Fencing material from (Naugle) 136.00

Fertilizer from (E. C. Thomas) 34.00

Numerous other misc. bills & accept. bids 3,924.66 $18.046.15

Unobligated balance $621.67

War Department
Gettysburg National Park
Gettysburg, Penna.
John P. Nicholson