Gettysburg, PA., August 1, 1911.

SIR: We have the honor to submit the annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1911.

Since the report of the 1910 the commission steadily have proceeded with the work in accordance with the law creating the park, urveying, locating, and preserving the lines of battle.

The commission erected the Confederate brigade tablets and the supporting pedestals cemented upon substantial foundations. Nothing permanent had before been placed on the Confederate lines of battle to show the positions and movements. A design for permanent markers with heavy granite pedestals and bronze tablets with a legend in raised letters of the operations of each brigade was submitted to and approved by the Secretary of War and authority given for the work. Fifty-nine of these markers were contracted for, which number was subsequently increased by five.

The contracts were made with the Van Amringe Granite Co., Boston, Mass., for the pedestals; with Albert Russell & Sons Co., Newburyport, Mass., for the tablets; and with Charles Kappes, Gettysburg, Pa., to prepare the foundations and to transport and erect the markers. The contract to mount the bronze tablets on the markers was given to C.W. Ziegler & Co., Gettysburg, Pa.


The Confederate brigade granite markers referred to in the report of 1910 have been completed; the last was finished December 19, 1910, making a total of 64 bronze tablets for the Confederate Army brigades.

The weight and dimensions are as follows:

Pedestals, medium red Maine granite. Round base, 34 1/2 inches diameter, 66 inches high; tablet 44 1/2 inches wide, 46 3/4 inches high; weight of pedestal, 3,000 pounds; weight of tablet, 300 pounds.


Bids for furnishing and delivering 74 brigade granite pedestals were received from 10 granite firms. All the bids were considered too high for the quality of granite offered, and by authority of the Assistant Secretary of War were rejected and new bids asked for on or before February 1, 1911. Ten granite firms replied. John Maxwell’s Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., were the lowest bidders, the quality of granite offered by them was acceptable, and they were given the contract. Ten pedestals have been delivered to this date.

Bids for the bronze tablets to contain the legends as a part of the pedestals were advertised for. Three bronze firms replied. Albert Russell & Sons Co., Newburyport, Mass., being the lowest were given the contract. Twenty tablets have been delivered to this time.

The contract for building foundations and hauling and setting these pedestals was given to Charles Kappes, and that to mount and fasten the tablets to complete the markers to C.W. Ziegler & Co., Gettysburg, Pa. All the foundations were staked out under the direction of the commission and the work, which was begun in May, 1911, has been finished.

The weight and dimensions are as follows:

Pedestal, sea-green granite. Square base, 36 by 36 inches, rounded corners; height of pedestal, 64 inches over all; tablet, 44 1/2 inches wide, 47 1/2 inches high; weight of pedestal, 3,500 pounds; weight of tablet, 300 pounds.

Contracts were also made during the year with Queen & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., for an engineer’s equipment and transit, which has been delivered, and with John C. Pepple, Orrtanna, Pa., to furnish and deliver 1,000 panels of post fencing, of which 250 have been delivered.

In the construction of the avenue at the foot of East Cemetery Hill it was necessary to build a retaining wall at the north end of the avenue 362 feet long, with coping and guardrail. A contract was made with M. & T. E. Farrell for the mason work, with E. Rosensteel for the coping, and with C. Gilbert for the guardrail. This work has been completed.


Negotiations begun in the fall of 1910 for the purchase of a tract of the Culp farm on the east of East Confederate Avenue and a small tract of the same farm on the west side of the avenue have been completed and the purchase consummated.

Surveys were made with a view to purchasing a tract of land along the east side of West Confederate Avenue, belonging to Calvin Gilbert, containing about 7 acres; but as the price asked was not satisfactory, the commission have resolved to commence condemnation proceedings.

Authority has been granted by the Secretary of War, at the discretion of the commission, to acquire two tracts of land, one on each side of Chambersburg Pike, and a third tract on the west side of Reynolds Avenue, belonging to the receivers of the Springs & Hotel Co., containing 95 acres.

A small plat of ground belonging to the Seventy-second Pennsylvania Regimental Association, containing 900 square feet, and located in front of the angle at the high-water mark, was purchased by the commission from the trustees of the association.

On July 6, 1910, the engineer made a survey of tract No. 2, of the Culp farm, containing 2.02 acres. The purchase was approved by the Acting Secretary of War.

February 10, 1911, the engineer surveyed a preliminary line for opening an avenue from the Taneytown Road opposite Gen. Meade’s headquarters on Meade Avenue, easterly through lands of C.C. Rider and William Bushman to a point in the Baltimore Pike at the foot of the short avenue leading to Rugg’s and Kinzie’s United States batteries. Later a strip of land 50 feet wide from each property and inclosing the avenue line was staked out, and blue prints of the plats were made which will be submitted to the owners of the land with a view to purchase at a fair price, and, failing this, to condemn.

An avenue 600 feet long, on the land of the United States, in rear of the Pennsylvania Memorial Monument, to connect Hancock and Pleasonton Avenues, was also surveyed by the engineer.

A map was furnished to the War Department showing in detail all the United States land on the battlefield and the south and east Cavalry fields controlled by the War Department through the commission; also a report giving in detail the area and occupancy of each tract. This map was completed in colors by the engineer and, with the report, transmitted to the Acting Secretary of War July 9, 1910.

The Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department requested the commission to have a survey and tracing made of a plat of ground in Gettysburg belonging to the United States, on which it was proposed to erect a public building--the lower story for the local post office and the second story for the use of the Gettysburg National Park Commission, with a room for the deputy revenue collector of the district.

The survey was begun November 9, 1910, completed during the month, and a blue print and tracing forwarded to the Architect of the Treasury Department.

The commission on July 9, 1910, in accordance with the Executive order of

June 28, 1909, granted half holidays to the employees on Saturdays for the months of July, August, and September.


Two guns, representing the positions of Hupp’s battery (Salem, Va., Artillery, Confederate States Army, Lieut. C. B. Griffin, commanding), have been mounted on Oak Ridge, north of the Western Maryland Railroad cut, with a tablet describing the movements of the battery.

The four guns of Capt. E.D. Taft’s New York Light Artillery on the Baltimore Pike were hidden by the hedge in the Evergreen Cemetery. Application to the trustees of the cemetery for permission to move the guns forward was granted. The hedge in front was removed, the guns were remounted in the advanced position, and a substantial fence was placed in the rear. The position of the battery is thus shown to advantage.

Gun carriages have been ordered upon which to mount two guns of Battery C, First New York Artillery, to be placed on Howe Avenue, and two guns of Battery C, Massachusetts Artillery, to be located on Wright Avenue near the line of Col. Lewis A. Grant, commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Sixth Corps, and on the line of Brig. Gen. David A. Russell, commanding Third Brigade, First Division, Sixth Corps. This is the second position of these batteries, which at 3 a.m., July 3, 1863, were ordered by their Artillery brigade commander, Capt. A. P. Martin, to report to Brig. Gen. A. P. Howe on the extreme left of the Army.

The positions of the 67 Union batteries on the field have been marked, none by less than two guns, some with four and others with six, mounted upon iron gun carriages of the model of 1861, with pyramids of shot or shell of the caliber used by each battery in the fight, and a third of the positions have been duplicated in guns and carriages to show the Artillery operations of the three days.

Of the 69 Confederate batteries, every command has been located and marked with two or four guns under the same conditions.

A large number of the guns on the field were in the battle and stand in the exact locations from which they were engaged, a consummation never before attempted in so large a degree.

The total number of cannon now mounted is 385.

It may not be amiss to report that this result was accomplished by diligent inquiry and research, and that from September, 1893, to June 30, 1911, 5,767 letters were written upon this subject alone.

Foreign army officers have made the prominence of the Artillery and the manner of its location and marking a subject of communication to their governments as an incentive for the marking of the battlefields of the Old World.


In the last report reference was made to the progress of the Pennsylvania Gettysburg Monument. It was not completed at the date set for dedication, but was so nearly finished that postponement was not considered advisable. Arrangements having been perfected by the Pennsylvania Gettysburg Memorial Commission for transporting the veteran soldiers of Pennsylvania to Gettysburg and for other details, a large platform was erected in accordance with plans of the engineer under the direction of the Gettysburg National Park Commission, the avenue fences on two sides of the monument were removed, and the ground graded. The dedication took place September 27, 1910, a large assembly of veterans and others being present, estimated at 10,000 persons; the ceremonies of the dedication were according to the program and very successful.


A site for the erection of the statue of Father Corby, chaplain of the Eighty-eighth New York Infantry, of the Irish Brigade,” had been selected and the location approved by the commission for its erection. On July 21, 1910, permission to erect the statue was granted by the Acting Secretary of War, and the statue was dedicated October 29, 1910, in the presence of a large number of persons and given into the care of the Gettysburg National Park Commission.


The commission are advised that the commissioners charged with the erection of the Virginia State Memorial are making progress with their work and that they will be ready to build the foundation in the early spring of 1912.


A commission appointed by the governor of the State of Maine to select a site for the erection of an equestrian statue to Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard visited Gettysburg

June 9, 1911. The National Park Commission accompanied them over the battlefield with a view to obtain a suitable location for the statue. The Maine commission will prepare a report in regard to locations visited and a site will be recommended. The commission consists of Bvt. Maj. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain (chairman), Brig. Gen. C.W. Tilden, and Maj. Seth C. Gordon.


A committee of the First Vermont Cavalry came from Vermont to select a site for a statue to Bvt. Maj. Gen. William Wells, colonel of First Vermont Cavalry, and on October 30, 1910, accompanied by the commission visited the battlefield in the vicinity of the operations of that regiment in its desperate charge through the lines of the Confederate Army on July 3, 1863.

After carefully considering several appropriate sites, the committee unanimously agreed on a location on section 7, at a bowlder on the south side of the avenue, 270 feet west of the bridge over Plum Run, and a map of the position has been made showing the site selected and the field of operations in the charge.


The commission have been notified by Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles, United States Army, chairman of the New York Monuments Commission, that the Legislature of the State of New York, under chapter 503, laws of 1910, had authorized the New York commission to procure and erect on an appropriate site a bronze statue of Bvt. Maj. Gen. James S. Wadsworth, commanding First Division, First Corps, in the battle. The site has not yet been selected.


The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, by an act approved March 4, 1911, by the governor of the Commonwealth, ceded to the United States jurisdiction over the Hanover public road, in Adams County, leading to the east Cavalry field, the scene of the combat between the forces of Bvt. Maj. Gen. D. McM. Gregg and Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart.


By order of the Secretary of War, a maneuver camp was established east of Gettysburg and not within the area of the park, and on July 1, 1910, the following troops arrived, viz:

Troops A, B, D, Fifteenth United States Cavalry; Batteries E and F, Third Field Artillery, United States Army; seven companies Second Infantry, United States Army; nine companies Twenty-ninth Infantry, United States Army; Companies A and D, Battalion Engineers, United States Army; Company A, Signal Corps, United States Army; platoon C Company, Hospital Corps, United States Army.

These troops were encamped from July 1 to 31, 1910. Portions of the Maryland and Virginia National Guard took part in the maneuvers from July 1 to 9, and of the National Guard of New Jersey also, the first detachment from July 10 to 17, second detachment July 17 to 23, and third detachment July 23 to 31; the Third Brigade of the National Guard of Pennsylvania from July 11 to 18; the National Guard of West Virginia from July 18 to 27; and the National Guard of the District of Columbia from July 18 to 31. The maneuver ground contained 20 square miles.

The order of the Secretary of War placing the maneuver camp outside the limits of the park was of the greatest value to the officers and men of the camp for a study of the field and the memorials, from the fact that the most important positions were not covered by masses of men, and the roads and avenues were not encumbered by troops drilling and supplies being hauled.

Moreover, the commission were enabled with their small force of guards to have complete control of the field, and there were no complaint of violations of the regulations of the Secretary of War governing the park.


In view of the encampment of the Pennsylvania National Guard, the Gettysburg National Park Commission appointed 40 of the artisans and laborers employed by them to patrol the field and to look after United States property. Twenty of the civilian guards were on duty from 6 a.m. to 1.30 p.m., and 20 from 1.30 p.m. to 9 p.m., from August 10 to 22, 1910.

On August 11, 1910, the Pennsylvania Guard began to arrive, the engineers of the guard having already laid out the ground for each brigade, and occupied parts of three farms owned by the United States but rented to tenants. The command broke camp August 21.

By direction of the commission the six guards on duty on the battlefield have provided themselves with uniforms which will hereafter be worn when on duty.

Owing to continued dry weather for several years, the adjacent streams and many of the wells in this section went dry. In 1909 a well borer was employed to deepen wells on farms rented by the commission to tenants, and a plentiful supply of water was obtained at a depth of about 100 feet.

The wear and tear of the surface of the avenues by automobiles has become so serious, because of their speeding and otherwise disregarding the rules of the park as promulgated by the Secretary of War, that to preserve the avenues a good surface preparation will be necessary. The work which has been begun with this purpose in view is in an experimental stage. A small part of Howard Avenue was treated in 1910, with result which seemed effective for at least six months.


The graduating class of cadets from the United States Military Academy, West Point, came to Gettysburg on May 1, 1911, on the annual visit of the graduating class from that school. There were 9 officers and 86 cadets, Col. G. J. Fiebeger, commanding. They made a study of the field under the guidance of the commanding officer, returning to West Point May 2, p.m.

On June 10, 1911, the Vice President of the United States, accompanied by Mrs. J.S. Sherman, arrived in Gettysburg and made a tour of the battlefield. The Vice President expressed his gratification at the work on the field.

Ten gun carriages to complete the marking of McGilvery’s Artillery battalion were ordered June 26 and the foundation stones June 29, 1911.

To June 30, 1911, 20 tablets for the brigade markers, Army of the Potomac, have been received, 10 of which were erected at the following positions on that date:

Meredith’s Infantry Brigade on Meredith Avenue.

Stone’s Infantry Brigade on Stone Avenue.
Cutler’s Infantry Brigade on Reynolds Avenue.
Paul’s Infantry Brigade on Doubleday Avenue.
Baxter’s Infantry Brigade on Doubleday Avenue.
Smyth’s Infantry Brigade on Hancock Avenue.
Hazard’s Artillery Brigade on Hancock Avenue.
Webb’s Infantry Brigade on Hancock Avenue.
Stannard’s Infantry Brigade on Hancock Avenue.
Brooke’s Infantry Brigade on Brooke Avenue.


As the interest widens and the study of movements on the field grows, the relief map of the battlefield (10 1/2 by 14 feet, representing 25 square miles) constructed by the engineer and his assistants from original surveys, no data having been taken from any other source, continues to afford to the student and visitor the greatest satisfaction, nor should this be a matter of surprise, inasmuch as illustrative of a battlefield this map has no equal.


The Acting Secretary of War having on March 5, 1910, transmitted to Congress, with a favorable recommendation, a draft of proposed legislation for the protection of military parks, the Hon. Frank O. Briggs submitted a bill in the Senate, Sixty-first Congress, second session, in furtherance of the recommendation of the Secretary of War.

Hon. Francis E. Warren also submitted the bill in the Senate, Sixty-first Congress, second session. The suggestion was based upon the experience of the Gettysburg commission, who had found that the requirements of existing legislation were inadequate to secure the roads, trees, monuments, and markers from injury and destruction consequent upon the increase in the number of visitors and the very general use of automobiles.


The Hon. D. F. Lafean introduced in the House of Representatives, Sixtieth Congress, second session, a bill To construct a Lincoln Memorial Highway as a national tribute of affection toward Abraham Lincoln, late President of the United States.”

Hon. P. C. Knox introduced a bill in the Senate December 16, 1908, To construct a Lincoln Memorial Highway from the White House, Washington, D.C., to the battlefield of Gettysburg.”

Hon. George A. Pearre introduced, December, 1908, a bill for constructing a highway from Washington to Gettysburg By way of an enduring memorial to the exalted wisdom and patriotism of Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United States.

Hon. W. P. Borland introduced a bill in the Sixty-second Congress, first session, For a Memorial Highway in memory of Abraham Lincoln.

Bills in furtherance of the memorial were introduced by Representative D. F. Lafean in January, March, and August, 1909.

Congress has not yet taken affirmative action upon these proposals, but it would appear that such a highway would be an appropriate memorial to the great President and the sublime eulogy he pronounced upon the field of Gettysburg.


On September 8, 1908, upon invitation of the chairman of the Gettysburg National Park Commission, a number of citizens of Gettysburg assembled at the Eagle Hotel, to whom he proposed that the question of properly celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg should be considered, first by a town meeting and subsequently fostered by earnest efforts with the governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

This action of the citizens of Gettysburg has developed into national importance. State and national committees have been appointed, money has been appropriated by States and by the United States. Almost three years have passed since this first meeting and the growing interest is an indication that the celebration in 1913 will be successfully accomplished.

A meeting of the Pennsylvania Commission of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg with the committees of Congress and of several States was held in Gettysburg October 13 and 14, 1910, at which, by invitation, the Gettysburg National Park Commission were present.


Hon. D. F. Lafean, Representative, submitted March 7, 1910, a bill providing for the dedication of the Gettysburg National Military Park and providing for an appropriation of $10,000 in furtherance of this purpose. Hon. Boies Penrose, United States Senator on April 15, 1910, submitted a bill to the Senate embracing the same action.

The House bill was referred through the Military Committee of the House of Representatives and through the War Department to the commission, and a favorable report thereon was made April 9, 1910, stating that The sentiment of the people requires an appropriate dedication of this national military park, and a failure to respond to such a sentiment would do violence to the sense of propriety of the people of the country. This report was transmitted to the Military Committee of the House of Representatives by the Hon. J. M. Dickinson, Secretary of War, indorsed The views of the chairman are concurred in and favorable action recommended.

The commission feel that their intimate knowledge of the field and of the history of the battle, together with their extensive acquaintance with the survivors of both of the contending armies, as well as with the official representatives of the several States whose regiments fought here, qualify them to aid effectively the general committee of the fiftieth anniversary of the battle, and to arrange for a fitting dedication of the national military park as contemplated by the act of Congress providing such dedication under the direction of the Secretary of War.

The commission express their appreciation of the faithful work of the engineer, Bvt. Lieut. Col. E. B. Cope, United States Volunteers, whose efficient services on the field commenced in July, 1863, when he was ordered by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade to remain after the advance of the Army of the Potomac into Virginia and to make a survey of the battlefield, which work was highly commended by Maj. Gen. Warren, chief of engineers of the Army of the Potomac in his indorsement upon the map of Gettysburg in the atlas of the Official Records of the War.


Number of acres within the limits of the first, second and third days’

battlefield--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15,860
Number of acres in east Cavalry field embracing Cavalry operations----- 6,400
Number of acres in south Cavalry field embracing Cavalry operations--- 2,200
Total------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24,460
Number of acres acquired by the United States through the commission
for avenues for marking positions of troops------------------------------ 2,257.09


Number of miles of telford avenues on the field---------------------------------- 23.50
Number of miles of macadam avenues and roads------------------------------ 9.00
Number of miles of other roads within the park---------------------------------- 24.00
Total------------------------------------------------------------------------ 56.50


Number of monuments erected by the States and by military or-

ganizations------------------------------------------------------------------------ 402
Number of granite and marble markers and flank markers------------------- 700
Number of monuments erected by the United States through the com-
To the Army of the Potomac---------------------------------------- 116
To the Army of Northern Virginia---------------------------------- 78
Total----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,296


Number of equestrian statues, heroic size----------------------------------------- 4
Number of statues on monuments---------------------------------------------------- 27
Number of bronze tablets---------------------------------------------------------------- 733
Number of bronze bas-reliefs on monuments-------------------------------------- 17
Number of bronze eagles on monument--------------------------------------------- 6

Total------------------------------------------------------------------------ 787


Number of granite statues on monuments----------------------------------------- 21
Number of granite bas-reliefs on monuments------------------------------------- 38
Total------------------------------------------------------------------------ 59


Number of cannon mounted by the United States through the commission:

To represent batteries of the Army of the Potomac----------- 216
To represent batteries of the Army of Northern Virginia----- 169

Total------------------------------------------------------------------------- 385

Iron tablets on the field-------------------------------------------------------------------- 370
Number of battery limbers mounted on field--------------------------------------- 2
Number of battery caissons mounted on field------------------------------------- 2

Total------------------------------------------------------------------------ 374


Number of steel towers on field------------------------------------------------------- 5
Number of steel bridges on avenues----------------------------------------------- 1
Number of granite and steel bridges------------------------------------------------ 5
Number of granite double-arch bridges-------------------------------------------- 1
Number of granite single-arch bridges--------------------------------------------- 7
Total bridges------------------------------------------------------------ 14


25 miles of post fencing have been erected-------------------------------------- 132,000
15 miles of avenue fencing have been erected----------------------------------- 79,200
Total------------------------------------------------------------------------ 211,200

Thousands of feet of division and boundary wire fencing have been erected and miles of gutter paving on sides of avenues and roads. These items and much other information relating to the work of the commission will be found in the report from year to year.

The commission have written in imperishable bronze and granite, without praise and without censure,” the history of the Army of the Potomac and of the Army of Northern Virginia on the field of Gettysburg, and with justifiable pride they refer to their work constructed upon the most scientific principles and at minimum cost for work of such high character.

As the park approaches completion it may not be improper to record that from September, 1893, to June 30, 1911, there have been, in connection with the work alone, 61,412 official letters written, and that of the appropriations made by Congress during the commission’s administration of the park not a dollar has been expended to change or alter work which they have completed.





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Manuscript by: Eileen M. Murphy

Source: Annual Reports of the Secretary of War

National Archives and Records Administration

Washington, DC