Gettysburg National Park Commission
Gettysburg, Pa. July 1, 1907
Sir: We have the honor to submit the annual report of the Commissioners of the Gettysburg National Park Commission for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907.
The engineers have been on duty every day, except holidays, either on the field or in the offices of the Commission.
On the field, they have been engaged in laying out work for the contractors and for the regular employees of the Commission; surveying the lines and fixing the grades of new avenues to be constructed; determining the places for underdraining, locating catch basins and pipe walls; staking out the sites of monuments, markers tablets and gun carriages; surveying land to be acquired and staking out fence lines and stone walls to be erected and rebuilt. Preliminary work generally in the first instance; all of which must be examined and approved by the Commission before it is established and carried into effect.
When the Commission took charge of the battlefield in 1893, under the Secretary of War, a complete system of records was established and maintained by the chairman, so that copies of all important papers, tracings of all drawings, and copies of all blueprints and white prints are preserved in bound volumes immediately accessible. Every document letter, drawing, etc., referring to contracts is bound and placed on file.
A parcel of land was purchased from Frank N. Frommeyer, containing 2.18 acres, and also a parcel of land was purchased from J. Emory Bair, bordering the peach orchard on the south and east sides. The former tract was acquired for the purpose of marking with guns and tablets Jones's battalion of artillery, C.S. Army, in its position of July 1, 1863. Money was appropriated by the Fifty-ninth Congress to purchase the field of Longstreet's assault on July 3,1863; also some adjoining lands. The engineers have surveyed this land and have prepared the necessary maps and descriptions to complete the transfer. There are three tracts, as follows:
Tracts Nos. 1 and 2 occupied by detachments of the armies on the second and third day's battlefield. Tract No. 3 on the first day's battlefield, 360.75 acres in all, belonging to the Gettysburg Springs and Hotel Company.
We respectfully recommend that the following additional land be acquired for the purpose of opening an avenue to the east cavalry field, that the whole field of occupation during the battle may be closely connected by land and roadway owned by the United States and an easy and direct means of communication established between the different parts of the battlefield:
The Schriver tract.............................. 1.00
The Ziegler tract.................................1.21
The Stock tract.................................24.85
The Galbraith tract............................. 1.66
The Deardorf tract.............................. .28
The Topper tract................................. .73
The Deatrick tract............................... 0.52
The Storick tract................................. 1.27
The E. Trostle tract............................. 3.16
The G. Trostle tract............................. 1.03
AVENUES AND ROADS
Ayres and Brooke avenue was completed and opened to the public on April 1. It traverses and opens a very important part of the battlefield. There are now on the line of this avenue sixteen large regimental monuments, as follows: Starting on the east end from the Wheatfield road, the Eleventh, First, Second, and Thirteenth ( Bucktails ) Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry monuments, One hundred and forty-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry, the last four of Brooke's brigade, One hundred and tenth Pennsylvania Infantry, Eighth New Jersey Infantry, One hundred and fifteenth Pennsylvania Infantry, the last five in the south wheat field. Ten monuments to the United States regular infantry will be erected on this avenue, The Second, Third, Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Tenth, Eleventh. Twelfth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth, also a number of other regimental and brigade positions of both armies will be marked on this avenue.
About the beginning of May the contractors, M. & T. E. Farrell, began work on the public roads ceded to the United States by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and authorized to be graded and piked by the Secretary of War. Sections of the Wheatfield road and Emmitsburg road were piked and completed about June 1; the contractor is now working on the stonework of the Mummasburg road and the grading upon the Carlisle and the Newville roads. By act of the general assembly of Pennsylvania at its session of 1907, that portion of the Emmitsburg road from the borough line of Gettysburg to the peach orchard was ceded to the United States, and in April last bids were asked for to grade and pike 3,600 feet of the said road. There was but one bid. As the amount was excessive, authority was given the Commission to reject the bid and readvertise and for more extended road work. Under the present contract the grading and piking of the Hagerstown road is included, the money for the work being in the current appropriation. In the last appropriation for the use of the Commission an additional sum of money has been set apart to continue the piking of public roads within the limits of the Gettysburg National Park. As heretofore the number of roads and extent of the work has already been determined by the Commission. They had advertised for bids to grade and pike the following public roads, bids to be received here on or before July 27, 1907.
The Emmitsburg road from the borough line of Gettysburg to the Peach orchard, 8,263 feet.
The Wheatfield road from Sedgwick avenue to Sickles avenue, 3,400 feet.
A total length of 14,535 feet, 18 feet wide.
One culvert is included in the bid; also a number of underdrains of cast-iron pipe.
Granite corps monuments, with large bronze tablets thereon, describing the engagements and movements of each army corps, have been erected by the Commission as follows:
The First Corps on Reynolds avenue.
The Second Corps on Hancock avenue.
The Fifth Corps on Sykes avenue.
The Sixth Corps on Sedgwick avenue.
The Eleventh Corps on Howard avenue.
The Twelfth Corps on Slocum avenue.
The Cavalry Corps on Pleasonton avenue.
The Reserve artillery on Taneytown road.
The position of the Third Corps monument is to be determined.
The First Corps monument, C. S. Army, section 4, Confederate avenue.
The Second Corps monument, C. S. Army, north, Confederate avenue.
The Third Corps monument, C. S. Army, west, Confederate avenue.
A handsome bronze statue to Brig. Gen. George S. Greene was erected, under the direction of the "New York Monuments Commission," near the summit of Culp's Hill in November, 1906. It has not been dedicated.
THE UNITED STATES REGULAR MONUMENTS
On February 18, 1903, and March 3, 1905, acts of Congress were passed appropriating money to erect a monument to each battery of artillery, each regiment of infantry, each regiment of cavalry, and to the engineers of the United States Regular Army engaged in the battle of Gettysburg.
The Gettysburg National Park Commission was, by said acts-
,,Authorized and directed under the supervision of the Secretary of War to erect such monuments and markers of granite and bronze upon the battlefield of Gettysburg in the State of Pennsylvania as will faithfully designate the positions, indicate the movements and commemorate the valorous services of the following batteries and regiments of the United States Regulars upon the battlefield. * * *
The Secretary of War shall, so far as practicable, procure the appointment of committees of the survivors of these regiments and batteries, with whom the said Commission shall consult, and with the approval of the Secretary of War determine the designs and positions of said monuments and markers and the inscriptions they shall bear. * * *
The invitation to the survivors of these commands was general, and on October 17, 1905, a number of them responded to the invitation, viewed the field, and entered into the discussion of the monuments and their location. The general sentiment favored the selection of a design representing a large and imposing monument, centrally located, that would be a fitting memorial in common to all the United States Regular Army commands on the field; also to select a design for 42 small monuments, one to be erected at the location of each command.
In order to carry out this, a subcommittee of nine was appointed by the chairman of the whole committee present to assist the Commission in the selection of designs and of locations:
Maj. Gen. James F. Wade, U. S. Army, chairman, Sixth Cavalry.
Maj. Gen. John C. Bates, U. S. Army, Eleventh Infantry.
Brig. Gen. T. F. Rodenbough, U. S. Army, Second Cavalry.
Brig. Gen. A. A. Harbach, U. S. Army, Eleventh Infantry.
Brig. Gen. Henry M. Robert, U. S. Army, Engineers.
Brig. Gen. John H. Page, U. S. Army, Third Infantry.
Brig. Gen. William M. Graham, U. S. Army, First Artillery.
Col. Frederick Fuger, U. S. Army, Fourth Artillery.
Sergt. George Merriweather, Eleventh Infantry.
Lieut. Gen. A. R. Chaffee, U. S. Army, chairman ex officio.
A quorum of the subcommittee met at Gettysburg on August 1, 1906, and proceeded to select a site for the large monument. A site on Hancock avenue 150 yards south of the high-water mark was unanimously agreed upon and staked out at the time by the engineer of the Commission.
On August 2, 1906, the committee examined a number of designs of monuments submitted, but no selection was made. The committee adjourned. After the lapse of several months a selection was made by the Commission, which was approved by the Secretary of War. Subsequently an agreement was reached as to the design for small monuments, which was also approved by the Secretary of War.
Contracts for the erection of all the said monuments were given to the Van Amringe Granite Company, of Boston, Mass., on February 11, 1907. The work is now in progress and will be completed in the autumn of 1908.
The sites of the 42 small regular monuments have been selected. The foundations will soon be constructed and the monuments erected thereon with appropriate guns and carriages for the batteries.
Six gun carriages mounted with guns as follows:
Green's battery, on right, two 3-inch rifles.
Tanner's battery, in center, two 3-inch rifles.
Garber's battery, on left, two 12 pounders.
All of Jones's battalion, C. S. Army. These are on the land purchased from Frank N. Frommeyer, on the east side of the Harrisburg road, the entrance to which is half a mile northeast of Rock Creek on said road.
Total number of guns mounted, 346.
Three battery tablets and one battalion tablet have been put up at the positions of Jones's battalion, C. S. Army, at the places mentioned.
One brigade tablet to Gordon's brigade, C. S. Army, has been erected on Howard avenue.
Six avenue tablets on Brooke and Ayres avenue.
Total number of tablets on the field, 510.
The contract for furnishing and erecting 4,000 feet of avenue fencing has been completed and an additional agreement made to furnish 690 feet additional at the same rate, to fill a gap near The Angle. This work had been partly done.
The contract to furnish and deliver 1,000 panels of post fencing, made May 4, has been about one-fourth delivered on the field. This material has been placed and partly erected on boundary lines of Frommeyer and United States, Basehoar and United States, and the Electric Railroad Company and United States.
Stone walls have been rebuilt along the Taneytown road, along the crossroads leading from Taneytown road and Hancock avenue, and on United States land along former boundary lines of G. Weikert, Masonheimer, and Trostle farms. Total length of wall rebuilt during the year, 2,400 feet.
Two parties of laborers have been engaged in gutter paving-one party on the large drain near the Trostle House. This gutter or drain is about 12 feet cross section in the clear, the banks are supported by two heavy retaining walls, each 250 feet long, and the water course paved the whole length. This drain has been completed, and the party is paving the gutters of Brooke and Ayres avenue.
The second party of pavers are at work upon gutters of Sickles avenue.
There are two parties of mowers that attend to dressing the sides of avenues and larger plots of ground adjoining, and are kept constantly employed to keep down the growth. They also make and store hay for the use of the Commission.
The Commission employ one carpenter and an assistant, who attend to the necessary repairs to buildings and fences on United States land and such other work as is required of them.
One painter and an assistant is employed at whatever painting to buildings, gun carriages, tablets, etc., is required. One steam engineer is employed to run the steam roller on the avenues and at laborer's work in the intervals.
Once in two years a party of the laborers is made up, from the different workmen on the field, to treat the whole length of the avenue gutters (some 15 to 16 miles in length) with herbicide. This effectually destroys all growth in them and along the sides of the roadway for the season, or perhaps two years if properly done.
A party of two laborers go constantly over every part of the battlefield, making their round about every ten days, keeping everything in complete order, such as repairing and straightening fences and gates, taking off waste paper, limbs and leaves, loose stone, and other litter.
Five guards are on duty every day, their routes cover the whole battlefield and they make a written report to the Commission every evening. All employees in charge of working parties also make written reports every evening, which is supplemented by the time-keeper's report covering the work of all the parties on the field.
Amount of land in the park (acres)--------------------------------------------2,046.92
Number of monuments erected-------------------------------------------------- 450
Number of tablets erected---------------------------------------------------------- 510
Guns mounted, Union and Confederate-----------------------------------------346
Number of miles of Telford avenues (completed)---------------------------- 21.37
NATIONAL GUARD ENCAMPMENT
The division of National Guard of Pennsylvania occupied 100 acres of United States land in their encampment on this field from July 21 to July 27, 1906. Every facility was rendered to them for occupying this ground by having fences and stone walls removed and granting the use of the avenues.
WEST POINT CADETS
The graduating class of the West Point cadets arrived at Gettysburg early in the morning of May 2, 1907, on their annual visit to the battlefield for study. Eight officers and 110 cadets were present. Colonel Fiebeger was in command.
They visited the first day's battlefield and Culps Hill in the morning and the cavalry field in the afternoon. The next day they went over the avenues of the second and third day's battlefield, leaving Gettysburg for West Point in the evening.
Respectfully, John P. Nicholson, Chairman
Chas. A. Richardson,
L. L. Lomax,
The Secretary of War.