Gettysburg, Pa., July 20, 1904.

SIR: The Commissioners of the Gettysburg National Park respectfully submit the following report of the progress of their work for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, with suggestions for its further prosecution and completion:


Wright avenue, which runs from the southern base of Little Round Top around the eastern slope of Round Top and thence to the Taneytown road, has been completed. It follows the line and marks the position of the troops to which was assigned the duty of guarding the southern or left flank of the Union Army. It is constructed, as are all the avenues on this battlefield upon the Telford system, with its base 14 or 15 inches thick, formed of paving stone, broken stone, and screenings, thoroughly rolled with a 14-ton roller, and well drained on each side. It is 1,000 yards in length and 16 feet wide. Part of it is located upon land recently purchased for the United States by the commission, so as to secure a suitable grade.

Meredith avenue, which runs southward through Reynolds woods and then eastward along the border of said woods to Reynolds avenue, was completed last year to the southern border of said woods; but, a dispute arising as to the title of the land on which the last-mentioned section of the avenue lies, the work on it was suspended. This dispute, however, has been recently settled by condemnation proceedings and the contractor has resumed work on that section of the avenue, which will be satisfactorily completed soon.

A survey has been made by the engineer of a suitable route for an avenue from the infantry battlefield to the cavalry field, 2 1/2 miles northeastward from the town. The route surveyed is upon good ground and the grades light; and also we have learned from the owners of some of the lands the prices to be paid. We estimate that the total cost of a strip of land 50 feet wide, suitable for such avenue, will be about $2,700.

The cavalry field, disconnected as it is from that of the infantry and, artillery, can only be reached now from Gettysburg by a circuitous route of about 4 miles over hilly and rough roads. For this reason it is but little known and rarely visited though much labor and money have been spent by several States and by cavalry organizations through the memorial association for the purchase of land and erection of monuments thereon, and also a large amount of work has been done there and money expended by the United States through the Park Commission for purchase of land, laying out and maintenance of avenues and care of the field in general.

The total length of avenues completed by the Commission is about 20 miles, of which 16 miles are 20 to 25 feet wide and about 4 miles are 16 feet wide. The principal reason for making these narrower than the average, as for instance Slocum avenue over and along Culp's Hill, was that they were steep and winding and to widen them would seriously mar the face of the ground which the Commission have taken great care to preserve as nearly as possible as it was at the time of the battle.


The following lands have been purchased this year:


Parcel of land covered with forest and situate alongside of West Confederate
avenue, purchased from Mrs. Sarah Plank 24.50
Parcel from Calvin Krise on Little Round Top 3.16
Parcel from George Trostle near the wheat field 2.50
Parcel from Melchior Wolf on cavalry field .75
Parcel from Newton Tawney on cavalry field .67
Making in all during this year 31.58

The two small parcels purchased from Messrs. Wolf and Tawney on the cavalry field were required for the completion of needed avenues.

Area of lands now owned here on the battlefield by the Government is 1,380.9348 acres, or about 2 1/6 square miles.

There are now under condemnation proceedings four tracts or parcels of land belonging to the Gettysburg Springs and Hotel Company, represented by the receivers, containing 36.56 acres.

There is also a parcel of land belonging to the McAllister heirs, situate on Rock Creek east of Culp's Hill, which has already been bargained for and a price agreed on, but by reason of some peculiarities in the ownership we will have to go into court to get valid title. Area, 6.56 acres.


Eleven additional gun carriages have been ordered to be set up and mounted with guns on the cavalry field, viz:

Two mounted with 10-pounder Parrotts, marking the position of Green's battery, "The Louisiana Guard Artillery."

Two mounted with 3-inch rifles, marking the position of Breathed's Virginia battery.

Two mounted with Napoleons and two with 3-inch rifles belonging to and marking the position of McGregor's Virginia battery.

Two mounted with howitzers and marking the position of Thomas E. Jackson's Virginia battery.

One mounted with a 3-inch rifle and marking (with a gun previously located) the position of Pennington's Union battery, on Cavalry avenue north of the Hanover road.

The number of guns now mounted on the battlefield including these, is 322.

A monumental bronze tablet has been erected on Section V, Confederate avenue, 1 mile west of Round Top, at the place where the Fourth Alabama Infantry Regiment, of Hood's division, formed line a mile west of Round Top and started with the other regiments of the brigade in the charge upon the Union position on Little Round Top, and an inscription cast on the tablet in raised letters states the movements, services, and losses of the regiment in the battle.

Four guide tablets have been set up on Wright avenue, four on Meredith and Stone avenues, one on Sykes avenue, and one at the Plank woods, making a total of 461 metallic tablets now on the field.

Twelve thousand feet of pipe fencing has been erected this year, making in all over 13 miles of the same now on the field.

Twenty thousand one hundred and eighty feet of post fencing has this year been erected, making now over 11 miles thereof on the field.

One thousand five hundred and thirty feet of stone walls have been rebuilt and restored during the year, which, together with those previously restored, make now on the battlefield 25,597 feet, or over 4 3/4 miles, of stone walls as originally on the field.

Sixty-seven thousand seven hundred and eighty-six feet, or about 12 5/6 miles, of gutter paving has been done alongside of the Telford avenues, most of it this year, in the best and most durable style, to prevent damage to the avenues from rainstorms and floods, and these finely paved gutters have proved to be most effective and successful in accomplishing that purpose and protecting the battlefield in general from heavy injury by the heavy rains which are not uncommon here.


Five guards are employed on the field, as has been the case since the first establishment of the park, and they are very necessary and useful in preventing injuries to the public work and mutilation of the monuments by mischievous visitors and foolish relic hunters. They are each required to file a written report every evening, so that needful orders may be given and everything on the field properly cared for.

From about the middle of March to the middle of December 36 laborers are employed and on duty for eight hours on each week day, busy in all the various kinds of work required, and 2 two-horse teams and 4 one-horse carts are on duty doing the needed hauling of stone, screenings earth, lumber, etc., as required.

The workmen are required to keep everything about their work in such shape that the field shall always appear as nearly as possible neat and finished, while in fact there is always a large amount of important work in progress.


A map was prepared by Lieut. Col. E. B. Cope, engineer, showing the parts of the field which have been partly or wholly denuded of trees since the battle, forty-one years ago, and plans were prepared to reforest those portions which have been purchased and now belong to the United States; and this, in fact, very nearly covers all the land on the battlefield which was wooded then and cleared since.

One thousand trees were planted in the autumn of 1893, in the groves of the national park, where the forest had been thinned out and marred by cutting and carrying away part of the growth.

Eighty-one hundred trees were purchased and received in the months of April and May, 1904, and these were planted by the laborers of the Commission under the supervision of S. B. Detwiler, field assistant, United States Bureau of Forestry. They were planted on Seminary Ridge, on United States land south of the McMillan woods, and southerly along the border of West Confederate avenue to the Wheatfield road, a distance of nearly 2 miles; and the residue on the Masonheimer land, south of United States avenue.

Since the planting of the aforesaid trees the season has been in the main favorable and nearly all of them seem to be growing.


This exhibit was prepared by order of Secretary of War Root. It was completed and shipped to St. Louis in April, 1904, and installed in the excellent position allotted to the Commission. The floor space assigned is 16 by 20 feet, and the wall space 360 square feet. Our exhibit consists of the following works, gotten up with care by our engineer, Col. E. B. Cope, and his assistants, viz:

1. A relief map 14 feet long by 10 1/2 feet wide, and representing 24 square miles, or substantially the entire battlefield, with all its features of hill and valley, field and forest, roads, buildings, streams, bridges everything in fact as it existed at the date of the battle, and executed with such skill and accuracy that everyone who saw it in Gettysburg was filled with admiration. It was shipped to St. Louis and put in position with great care, fortunately without injury.

2. Two tables, each 5 feet long by 3 feet wide and covered with large volumes of blueprints, showing a great number and variety of objects and scenes on the battlefield, among them the charge of Pickett and Pettigrew, and many other episodes and features of the great battle. (The above are placed on the floor space.)

3. A framed blueprint map of the battlefield, 40 by 48 inches in dimensions, completed in 1900.

4. A framed blueprint map of the battlefield, 38 by 53 inches, made in 1903.

5. Five framed white prints of the battlefield, as it was in 1863, showing the positions of the troops of both armies on the different days of the battle. The scale of these white prints is 600 feet to the inch.

6. A framed map on Whatman paper, 44 by 50 inches, the surveys for which were made by order of General Meade in August, September, and October, 1863, when the field was in the condition caused by the then recent battle. The work was done by a party of topographical engineers from headquarters, Army of the Potomac, and under the supervision of Colonel Cope.

7. A framed print showing the positions of monuments, markers, batteries, etc., on this field, as fixed by Colonel Cope, engineer of the Commission, and his assistants.

8. A framed map of the battlefield of Antietam, as made from surveys by Colonel Cope and his assistants.

9. A very large photograph, showing almost the whole of the battle of Gettysburg, taken from the summit of Little Round Top.

10. Forty six large frame photographs, giving views of all parts of the battlefield and showing much of the work done by the Commission.


Multitudes of our countrymen from all sections come here, and many persons of distinction have visited the Gettysburg battlefield during the past year, among them Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States; Hon. Robert Shaw Oliver, Assistant Secretary of War; Lieut. Gen. Ian Hamilton, quartermaster-general of the British army, and A. K. Muir, baronet; H. M. Durand, British ambassador, and Hubert Foster, lieutenant-colonel Royal Engineers; George B. Davis, Judge-Advocate-General, U.S. Army; Wallace F. Randolph, major-general, U. S. Army; Brig. Gen. John C. Black, commander in chief, Grand Army of the Republic; Maj. Gen. 0. 0. Howard; Hon., Leslie M. Shaw, Secretary of the Treasury; Hon. Henry C. Payne,

Postmaster-General, and many others. We are glad to say that all these distinguished persons spoke in the most complimentary terms the work done by the Commission.


There are a few important, though not large parcels of land mainly on the Confederate portion of the battlefield, which should yet be acquired, and monumental tablets erected thereon with inscriptions, and guns mounted to mark the positions of batteries; and some short avenues constructed leading to important points; and when these things are done, in addition to the great and enduring work which has already been finished, we think the object of the Government in establishing the Gettysburg National Park will have been substantially accomplished.

It will be observed from what is stated in this, as well as in previous annual reports, that we have in general thought the instructions issued to the Commission were wise, to purchase from time to time but small parcels of land instead of large, tracts; for the important events of the great battle could be commemorated by monuments occupying but a comparatively small space, and the needless purchase of great areas would not only cost heavily, but would entail a continuous useless expense to maintain them, although vacant, in a condition becoming the Government. In our opinion the acquisition of any further extensive tracts of land here by the United States would be a waste of public funds, and we think one more liberal appropriation by Congress, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906, will enable the Commission to complete the Gettysburg National Park in a manner worthy of the Government and satisfactory to every section of the country; and when it is complete only a modest amount will be required to maintain it and to employ sufficient guards to protect a public property now aggregating in value millions of dollars.

Through correspondence the addresses of over 500 survivors of the United states regular commands have been secured and their statements regarding the positions of the regular regiments and batteries are being noted. By a clerical omission Battery E, Fourth U. S. Artillery, was omitted in the act. This was rectified by the Senate unanimously passing a special appropriation for the monument, which is now in the House of Representatives. When this becomes a law the monuments will be contacted for by advertisement.

As long as the survivors associations of the war of 1861-1865 continue there will be erected upon the battlefield at Gettysburg costly and elaborate memorials, the interest in the field increasing through the work of the Government.

The State of Pennsylvania has appropriated $150,000, available in 1905, to erect a monument to the soldiers upon the field.

The State of New York is erecting a monument to the Oneida Company, Independent Cavalry, at General Meade's headquarters, and the Commission are proceeding with the details to erect the monuments to the regular commands, as authorized by Congress.

We ask Congress to give a liberal appropriation at its next session for the completion of this great monumental work with the fiscal year 1905-6.






492.-Tract of land on Cavalry Field, Newton A. Tawney, July 27, 1903.
493.-Tract of land, McAllister's Woods.
493 1/2.-Two tracts, Nos. 3 and 4, Springs and Hotel Company, August 12, 1903.
494.-Tract of land, Henry A. Wolf, Cavalry Field, September 8, 1903.
495.-New lodge, national cemetery, August 24, 1903.
496.-Tract of land, Plank's Woods, September 11, 1903.
497.-Battlefield of Antietam, showing troops, September 11, 1903.
498.-Catch basin, as used on Gettysburg National Park, September 5, 1903.
499.-Gettysburg Springs and Hotel Company, north of Hagerstown road.
500.-Plan of table for relief map.
501B.-Drawing, space at St. Louis Exposition, 500 feet.
502.-Drawing, space at St. Louis Exposition, 320 feet, March 23, 1904.
503.-Drawing for temporary extension of rostrum, May 17, 1904.
504.-Two tracts, Mrs. H. T. Schriver and C. W. Ziegler, June 15, 1904.
505.-One tract, C. W. Ziegler, June 15, 1905.
506.-One tract, George E. Stock, June 15, 1904.
507.-One tract, Henry Gilbraith, June 15, 1904.
508.-One tract, Dr. W. H. Deardorf, June 15, 1904.
509.-One tract, Andrew Topper, June 15, 1904.
510.-One tract, Lydia Deatrick, June 15, 1904.
511.-One tract, W. C. Storrick, June 15, 1904.
512.-One tract, Ed. Trostle, June 15, 1904.
513.-One tract, George Trostle, June 15, 1904.
514.-Map of battlefield, 600 feet scale, 1903, June 15, 1904.

1.-Wright avenue from Chamberlain avenue.
2.-Wright avenue showing wall breastworks.
3.-Wright avenue looking east.
4.-Stone wall, breastwork, Doubleday avenue.
5.-Stone wall, breastwork, Taneytown road, General Meade's headquarters.
6.-Stone wall, breastwork, Taneytown road.
7.-Stone wall, breastwork, Taneytown road, storage building.
8.-Fencing on Reynolds avenue, Calef's battery section.
9.-Gutter paving on Buford avenue.
10.-Gutter paving on United States avenue.
11.-Gutter paving on Warren avenue.
12.-Gutter paving on Sickles avenue.
13.-Retaining wall and gutter on Stone avenue.
14.-Grading east end Meredith avenue.
15.-Grading Meredith avenue looking west.
16.-South line of Rummel Woods from Rummel barn.
17.-Avenue on Artillery line, Cavalry Field.
18.-From Battery M. Second United States artillery, Cavalry Field, showing the Union infantry line from right to left.
19.-Tablet of Fourth Alabama Infantry Regiment, section, 5.
20.-Pardee Field from Geary avenue.
21.-Pardee Field from stone wall, breastwork, on south spur of Culp's Hill.
22.-Marker to Brig. Gen. Albion P. Howe's headquarters.
23.-Nineteenth Indiana monument.
24.-Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry marker, along Rock Creek.
25.-Relief map of the battlefield of Gettysburg.



Governors Island, N. Y, December 9, 1904.
SIR: I have the honer to submit the following report of an inspection of the details of the work as carried on- by the Gettysburg National Park Commission, in compliance with letter of instruction from the Military Secretary's Office, dated November 7, 1904.

Personnel of the Gettysburg National Park Commission.

Lieut. Col. JOHN P. NICHOLSON, Chairman.


Lieut. Col. E. B. Cope, chief engineer and superintendent, at $150 per month.
One assistant engineer, at $80 per month.
One rodman, at $50 per month.
One assistant superintendent, at $50 per month.
One storekeeper and timekeeper, at $50 per month.
One messenger, at $35 per month.
One hostler, at $30 per month.
Five guards, at $40 per month each.
Total monthly payroll $645.
On the date of inspection, in addition to the above, there were employed 27 laborers at $1.50 per day; 3 carts, with horse and driver, at $2.25 per day, and 2 teams, with driver, at $3.25 per day. The payroll for this class of labor during the month of November, 1904, was $1,367.92.


Three horses, 2 wagons, 1 cart, 1 steam roller, 1 horse roller, 2 bar mowers, 1 horse lawn-mower, 1 water cart.


One brick fireproof storehouse.


The office of the Commission is located in the town of Gettysburg, for which a rental of $210 per year, including the water rent, is paid. The average cost of fuel is $24 per year; the average cost of lights, $30 per year.

The animals belonging to the Commission occupy a stable in the town, for which a rental of $30 per year is paid.


Belonging to the Commission:
1. Journal: Extends from June 1, 1893, to date, and includes 12 volumes of over 5,000 pages, recording each day's transactions and meetings of the Commission.
2. Contracts: Full details of the work, 1893 to 1904, bound separately in 52 volumes.
3. A volume embracing legislative history of the battlefield from the organization of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, including all legislation by States and the National Government.
4. Applications by the Commission for authority for work and purchases, with the approval of the War Department, embracing 12 quarto volumes arranged by year.
5. Volume containing the number of letters written daily, relating to the work since 1893.
6. Volume containing copy of every Confederate and Union inscription prepared and placed on the field by the Commission since 1893.
7. Two volumes, folio, containing a record of every plat or piece of ground transferred to the United States, as recorded, with full-page-drawing of the property.
8. Four volumes, quarto, showing the property purchased, accompanied by the agreement of the owner to sell, authority from the Secretary of War to purchase, with blueprint description of the land.
9.Three folio volumes, containing applications from State commissions and associations of survivors to locate monuments and tablets since 1893, with the correspondence relating to the location, designs, and inscriptions, with final approval of the Secretary of War.

Engineer Department:

1. Journal: 7 volumes, July, 1893, to December, 1904.
2. Office memoranda: 2 volumes, July, 1893, to December, 1904.
3. Contract book: 1 volume, July, 1893, to December, 1904.
4. Cannon account: 1 volume, July, 1893, to December, 1904.
5. General information: 1 volume, July, 1893, to December, 1904.
6. Agreement of employees: 1 volume, 1893 to December, 1904.
7. Account book employees: 1 volume, 1895 to December, 1904.
8. Account book, materials, etc.: 4 volumes, 1896 to December, 1904.
9. Record of position of troops: 1 volume, July 1, 2, and 3, 1863.
10. Applicants for position on force: 1 volume.
11. Drawings and tracings: 1 volume, from 1893 to 1904.
12. Blueprints: 1 volume, 1893 to 1904.
13. Books, 30 by 36 inches: 2 volumes, containing 372 pages, with 542 blueprints.
14. Book, 30 by 36 inches: 1 volume, office copy Warren map, 24 sheets.
15. Book, 30 by 36 inches: 1 volume, engineers' survey of Gettysburg battlefield.
16. Book, 21 by 30 inches: 1 volume, engineers' survey, colored maps and prints.
17. Book: 1 volume, Warren map, position of troops each half hour, July 1.
18. Book: 1 volume, Warren map, position of troops each half hour, July 2.
19. Book: 1 volume, Warren map, position of troops each half hour, July 3.
20. Time book, kept by timekeeper.
21. List of tools, kept by timekeeper.
In addition to the above, the office contains books and photographs, of every monument on the field; views of all the different work on the field; photographs of important buildings and historic places on the field about the time of the battle, and folio books containing copies of every blueprint.

The above records are very full and complete. I do not see that the intelligent system followed could be improved upon. Nearly all records are of great historic value, and some means should be provided at an early date to guard them against destruction by fire.


The Commission does not disburse funds. The money appropriated for the work done by the Commission is disbursed by the disbursing officer of the War Department under the orders of the Secretary of War.

The amount to the credit of the appropriation on October 31, 1904, was $46,905.63. Except in case of very minor transactions, all purchases are made after competitive bids are requested and the contract awarded. All bills are verified and signed by the chief engineer and approved by the chairman of the Commission. All the work on property included in the park is done by contract after competition, except maintenance and general repairs to roads, fences, etc., and the construction of gutters.

The supervision of labor and record of work done and time employed is excellent.


The guards, five in number, have the authority of deputy marshals, and are employed in the general police of the park to prevent injuries to the public work or the mutilation of the monuments, and are required to submit each evening a report covering their observations and work done during the day, indicating what monuments or roads require repair or attention, also the number of articles, if any, which they have found on the field. The number of laborers is reduced to the lowest minimum from the 26th of December every year until about the middle of the following March.


Since July, 1893, there have been constructed 20 miles of Telford avenues; and 13 1/2 miles of avenue fencing, built of locust posts and gas-pipe rails; 12 1/2 miles of fencing built of posts and rails; 13 miles of gutter paving. Five and one-fourth miles of stone walls have been rebuilt at locations where stone walls existed at the time of the battle. Three hundred and twenty-four guns have been mounted. 462 tablets have been erected, and 17,100 trees have been planted. These trees are planted on ground that was covered with trees at the time of the battle. AlI this work has been well done.

The roads have been constructed on the telford system; the road bed, carefully graded and drained, was covered with a course of stone paved by hand consisting of hard stone 8 to 10 inches long, 7 to 8 inches wide, and 4 to 6 inches thick; and bowlders about the same size, set up on edge, thickest edge down, length across the road, and laid so as to break joints as much as possible, forming a rough, irregular pavement 8 inches thick over the whole roadbed, the joints between the stones being chinked and knapped with smaller stones and stone chips driven in, projecting points above 8 inches being knocked

off with a hammer.

A course of stones 12 inches high, 12 to 18 inches long, and 6 to 8 inches thick, is laid at the sides of the subgrade. This foundation is covered to a depth of 5 inches in the center and 4 inches at the sides with broken stone, 1 1/2-inch dimensions. This is rolled by a 13-ton roller at least five times after being sprinkled. One-half inch of clay is then spread over this layer, which is then covered with 2 inches of granite screenings, three-fourths of an inch in size, which is sprinkled and rolled five times; finally, over this a half inch of fine limestone screenings is evenly spread over the entire surface, sprinkled and rolled at least ten times.

Some of these roads have been in use for ten years and show very little signs of wear; in fact, they are as good as when first completed. The average cost of these roads has been about 73 1/2 cents per square yard, something over $8,000 a mile. With proper care and maintenance they will last indefinitely.

The guttering along these roads, now being constructed under the supervision of the chief engineer

by day labor, is an improvement over that first put down by the contract system; it is of excellent quality and should endure for a long time.


Within the limits of the park are twelve small farms. These farms are rented on a yearly lease to approved tenants under uniform leases which carefully guard the interests of the park by including provisions which require the improvement of the land. There is also a small frame building, leased to an old soldier, within the limits of the park. The revenue derived from these leases amounts to $799 per annum. This money is, with the approval of the Secretary of War, disbursed for the betterment of the park.


The Government now owns 1,380 acres of land on the battlefield. Thirty-six acres are now under condemnation proceedings before the courts. In the opinion of the Commission there still remain about 190 acres of land that should be acquired in order to preserve the integrity of the entire battlefield. This land is indicated on the accompanying map as described in the legend.

In order to connect the field where the cavalry action took place during this memorable battle it is very desirable to acquire a strip of land 50 feet wide. The road has been surveyed. The proposed avenue is entirely practicable and can be acquired for about $2,700. Under the present arrangement it is necessary for anyone desiring to visit the cavalry field to travel about 4 miles over bad roads, and for this reason it is rarely visited by the numerous throngs of people who go to the infantry field. By the proposed route a distance of about 2 1/2 miles would be saved. It is earnestly recommended that this project be approved. The land to be acquired is mainly on that portion of the field occupied by the Confederate army, on which were stationed during the battle bodies of troops and batteries of artillery.


I thoroughly inspected the roads, avenues, and the park generally, both on the infantry field and on the cavalry field. The roads, fences, monuments, woodlands, and shrubbery are in good condition; the entire park as observed was well policed and free from rubbish and other disfiguring elements. The character of the work done and the general conditions showed a very intelligent and thorough system as to construction, care and maintenance. I have nothing to suggest in the way of improvements upon the methods and systems of the Commission. It appears to me that they have accomplished a great work, one of the principal features being the extreme care taken to ascertain the positions held by the various commands participating in the great battle fought there. There can be no doubt that the positions thus far marked are accurate and trustworthy.

An accurate topographical map of the entire field has been completed under the direction of Colonel Cope, the chief engineer.

A list of blank forms used by the Commission, map of the field, map showing the land owned and such land as it is proposed to acquire, regulations for the government of Gettysburg Park, and specifications for roads, fences and gun carriages, accompany this report.

Very Respectfully,

Colonel, Inspector-General.
Washington, D. C.