GETTYSBURG NATIONAL PARK,
Gettysburg, Pa., October 25, 1895.
SIR: The Gettysburg National Park Commission respectfully submit the following statement of the progress and present condition of the work:
At the date when our report as the Battlefield Commission was made last year the only roadway in process of construction was section 4 of the Confederate avenue, from the Wheatfield road to the Emmitsburg road along Seminary Ridge. During the present year there have been constructed sections 5, 6, and 7 of Confederate avenue extending south from the Emmitsburg road to the southern limits of the battlefield, thence eastward crossing Plum Run, and up along the west slope of Round Top to Kilpatrick avenue; also an avenue known as United States avenue from the Emmitsburg road eastward via the Trostle House to Hancock avenue. There is now being constructed what is known as Seminary avenue, running south from the Chambersburg pike along Seminary Ridge to some distance beyond the Hagerstown road, and as soon as the right of way can be secured this avenue will be extended along said ridge to the Wheatfield road and connect with section 4 of Confederate avenue, long since completed. Hancock avenue, which runs from the national cemetery gate southward along the main Union line of battle to the end of United States avenue, is now being converted into a Telford road 25 feet wide, with two side loops 20 feet wide reaching out to interesting localities.
An avenue is also under contract running from the Wheatfield road south on the border of the Valley of Death to the Devil's Den, and thence around and following the line of battle of the Third Corps to the Crawford land line.
All these avenues have been and are being constructed on the Telford system, which was adopted after full consideration and study of the subject as promising the best results in solidity and durability. The stone used is syenitic granite and ironstone, very hard and of excellent quality. A foundation pavement is laid of 8-inch wedgelike stones set on edge and well knapped and chinked; on this 4 inches of stone 1 1/2 inches in size; then a slight layer of clay as a binder, and finally a top dressing of 1 or 2 inches of quarter-inch stone screenings; the whole rolled thoroughly with a steam roller weighing 14 tons; side and under drains are placed where needed. The results of the above method and process are roadways smooth and solid and which will last for generations.
Two bridges have been built over Plum Run, one on United States avenue, the other on section 7, Confederate avenue. They are massively built of Gettysburg granite, the foundations deep, the superstructure of steel 6-inch I bars weighing 15 pounds per foot, the roadway 22 feet wide of 3-inch oak plank, cap stones on the abutments, and railings of iron.
Four steel towers, to be constructed upon a design prepared by the engineer, Col. E. B. Cope, and approved by the commission, have been contracted for and are now being erected by the Variety Iron Works, of Cleveland, Ohio. No. 1 is 60 feet high and stands on the summit of Big Round Top; No. 2 is 75 feet high, on Seminary Ridge, near the Wheatfield road; No. 3, 75 feet high, is on Seminary Ridge, near the Mummasburg road, and overlooks specially the scene of the first day's fight; No. 4, 60 feet high, is on the summit of Culp's Hill. Nos. 1 and 2 are nearly finished, and all four will be completed within a month.
Besides a large amount of stone fencing repaired and rebuilt along battle lines of both armies as it stood at the time of the battle, the commission are having constructed a fence along the completed avenues wherever needed, with gates at proper locations. This fence is composed of round locust posts, iron capped, with four galvanized 1-inch gas pipes for the railings, with two No. 8 galvanized wires in the lower intervals. The whole is over 4 1/2 feet high, very strong and handsome.
The volunteer batteries of the Union Army on the grounds of the Memorial Association are generally represented by one gun and mounted upon inferior carriages. This commission resolved to substitute an improved iron gun carriage. Sixty-two new carriages have been contracted for. Of these about 36 have -been furnished by the contractor and placed on the field and mounted with the kind of gun used by each battery, respectively, in the battle. The others will be put in position as soon as supplied by the contractor. Excellent granite foundation stones support each carriage. The following have already been placed on the Union lines, viz:
One carriage and 10-pound Parrott (Knap's Battery), Culp's Hill.
One carriage, Napoleon gun, on Barlow Knoll.
Three carriages and 10-pound Parrotts on Little Round Top.
Six carriages and 3-inch rifles (Rickett's Battery), on East Cemetery Hill.
Three carriages and Napoleon guns (Stewart's Battery), on East Cemetery Hill.
Three carriages and 3-inch rifles (right of Rickett's Battery), on East Cemetery Hill.
Three carriages and 3-inch rifles (Wiedrich's New York Battery), on East Cemetery Hill.
All of these guns on East Cemetery Hill occupy redoubts used by said batteries in the battle.
On the Confederate lines the following have been placed to mark positions of batteries, viz:
One carriage and Confederate Napoleon gun (Taylor's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 3-inch rifle (Parker's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 3-inch rifle (Jordan's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
Two carriages and 20-pound Parrotts (Woolfolk's, Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue. (The above belonged to Alexander's Battalion.)
One carriage and howitzer (section Carlton's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 3-inch rifle (Manly's North Carolina Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 10-pound Parrott (section Carlton's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 10-pound Parrott (McCarthy's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 3-inch rifle (Fraser's Battery), section 4, Confederate avenue.
(These belonged to Cabell's Battalion.)
One carriage and Napoleon gun (Latham's North Carolina Battery), section 5, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and Napoleon gun (Garden's South Carolina Battery), section 5, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and 10-pound Parrott (Bachman's South Carolina Battery), section 5, Confederate avenue.
One carriage and Napoleon gun (section Reilly's North Carolina Battery), section 5, Confederate avenue.
Two carriages and 3-inch rifles (section Reilly's North Carolina Battery), section 6, Confederate avenue. (These belonged to Henry's Battalion.)
POSITIONS AND MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS.
The position and evolutions of the various commands of the Union Army were mostly determined and marked by the Memorial Association. But those of the Confederate army remained for the commission to ascertain and locate. Much attention has been given to this. Surviving Confederate officers and soldiers have been invited to visit the field; also the authorities of the Southern States have been requested to send commissioners representing Confederate commands to point out positions. The responses from the South to these invitations and requests have been very encouraging, and the commission have had the aid of many Confederate soldiers of intelligence, some of high rank, in fixing positions and movements of Confederate troops. Additions to our information on these points are being constantly made. All positions ascertained are, of course, carefully noted on our topographical maps, as well as upon the field, so that they can not be lost. Without going into particulars, the commission feel sure that they will be able within a reasonable period to determine and mark with very great accuracy the positions and evolutions of all the various commands of the Confederate army on this field.
THE COMMISSION'S NEW MAP OF THE BATTLEFIELD.
Owing to numerous and important engineering operations for the construction of avenues, bridges, towers, etc., for determining the boundaries of properties and office work for the immediate use of the commission, the engineer corps have been unable to complete their battlefield survey and map projected to show every detail of the field, for which a large amount of data has already been collected. They hope to be able ere long to bring this work to completion. The sheets already completed have been found to be of much value for reference and are in constant requisition. The commission will not now attempt to specify in detail all the work of the engineer, Col. E. B. Cope, and his assistants, but the same has been very extensive and varied and in the highest degree satisfactory.
JOHN P. NICHOLSON,
Wm. M. ROBBINS,
The SECRETARY OF WAR.
BLUE-PRINT MAPS ACCOMPANYING THE REPORT.
68.-United States corner stone.
70.-Tract of Henry Spangler.
71.-Tract of J. L. Sherfy.
72.-Tract of W. H. Martin.
73.-Section 6, Confederate avenue.
74.-Section 7, Confederate avenue.
77.-Tract No. 3, J. L. Sherfy.
78.-Sections 1, 2, and 3, Confederate avenue.
79.-A public road.
80.-United States Regular avenue.
81.-Tract of Maria Shultz.
82.-Plan of bridge.
83.-Plan of 75-foot tower.
84.-Tract of S. J. Drum.
85. -Drawing of 60-foot tower.
86.-14.2 miles of public roads.
87.-Tract of William H. Tipton.
88.-Tract No. 5 land company.
89.-Tract No. 1 land company.
90.-Tract No. 2 land company.
91.-Tract No. 3 J. L. Sherfy
92. -Tract of Martin Winter
93.-Tract of H. C. Parsons.
94.-Tract of Robert Sheads.
95.-Tract of C. F. Starner.
96.-Perspective view of tower.
97. -Tract of the Twenty-first Cavalry.
99.-Drawing of 75-foot tower.
101.-Plan of gate.
102.-Plan of fence.
103.-Centerpiece of gate.
104.-Plan of gate.
105.-Plan of gate.
106.-Tract of land of Fifth New Jersey.
107.-Tract of land of Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania.
108.-Tract of land of Sixth Pennsylvania.
109.-Tract of land of Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania.
110.-Tract of land of Knap's Battery.
111.-Tract of land of Tenth Maine.
112.-Tract of land of One hundred and thirty-sixth New York.
113.-Tract of land of First New York Artillery.
114.-Tract of land of Seventy-seventh New York.
115.-Tract of land of Fifty-fifth New York.
116.-Tract of land of Fourth Ohio.
117.-Tract of land of One hundred and twenty-fifth New York.
118.-Tract of land of Third New York.
119.-Tract of land of First New Jersey Cavalry.
120.-Tract of land of Third Pennsylvania Battery.
121. -Tract of land of Tenth New York Cavalry.
122.-Tract of land of Fourth New Jersey, marker.
123.-Tract of land of One hundred and fifty-third Pennsylvania.
124.-Tract of land of Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.
125.-Tract of land of Eighth Ohio.
126.-Tract of land of United States avenue.
127.-Tract of land of United States avenue.
128.-United States corner stone.
129. -Sickles and Crawford avenues.
130.-Hancock and Sedgwick avenues.
131. -Foundation stones.
132.-Seminary Lane avenue.
133.-Fence No. 2, Gilbert.
134.-Barn at headquarters.
137.-Tract of C. Gilbert.
138.-Tract of Maria Shultz.
139.-Tract of Jacob Benner.
140.-Tract of Seminary lane.
141.-Drawing of gate and fence.
142.-Drawing of shells used in the battle.
143.-Drawing of 13-inch shells.
144.-Tract of United States property.
145.-Tract of James Felix.
146.-Tract of United States property.
150.-Tract of Bair and Gilbert.
151.-Tract of Pfeffer.
152.-Tract of Basil Biggs.
153.-Tract of F. Pfeffer.
154.-Tract of D. J. Benner.
155.-Tract of L. Leister.
156.-Tract of B. Biggs.
157.-Tract of L. Hummelbaugh.
158.-Tract of S. Codori.
159.-Tract of W. Patterson.
160.-Tract of G. Weikert.
161.-Tract of P. D. Swisher.
162.-Tract of J. Felix.
163.-Boundary lines borough of Gettysburg.
164.-Tract of the Memorial Association.
165.-Site of General Meade's statue.
166.-Tract of the Memorial Association.
167.-Tract of the Memorial Association.
LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO ACCOMPANY COMMISSIONERS' REPORT.
View on section 7, Confederate avenue-the Devil's Slipper.
Section 7, looking east, Round Top in the distance.
Grading roadbed, section 1, Confederate avenue.
Rolling subgrade, section 1, Confederate avenue.
Foundation work of road way on Seminary avenue, looking north.
A view of Rickett's Battery, F and G, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, East Cemetery Hill.
First New York Light Battery I, East Cemetery Hill.
Side view, bridge no. 1.
Perspective view of bridge no. 1 on United States avenue.
Stewart's Battery, Fourth United States, East Cemetery Hill.
A view of Cooper's Battery, B, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, East Cemetery Hill.
A section of Reilly's Battery, C. S. A., on section 6, looking toward Little Round Top.
View on section 6, looking east, Round Top in the distance.
Old cast-iron gun carriage, formerly used to mark the field.
A view of avenue, section 5, looking north.
A view of section 5, looking south.
A view of Confederate avenue, section 7, looking south from near the entrance of KiIpatrick avenue.
A view of Confederate avenue, section 7, looking north.
A view of avenue, section 4, looking north, showing the fence constructed by the commission on one side and the stone wall rebuilt on the other.