The Field and Monuments



General Monument Interpretation

One of the finest, most interesting, and readily available books on Gettysburg monuments is: _Gettysburg: Stories of Men and Monuments as Told by Battlefield Guides_ by Frederick W. Hawthorne. I don't have an address that you could send for the book but it is in all the bookstores in the burg. If you are not able to visit Gettysburg readily you may want to call the park service general purpose number 717-334-1124 and ask to speak to someone in the book store. Maybe you can arrange with them to ship you a copy.

While you are at it you may want to have them send you: _The Location of the Monuments, Markers and Tablets on Gettysburg Battlefield_ as compiled by the GNMP chief historian; Kathleen Georg Harrison. This book has some general information of the organization of monuments on the field, but is particularly valuable in listing every marker known to be on the field, along with it's location, dedication date(s) and certain other information.

Another recently published book that is useful for monument study is: _Gettysburg The Complete Pictorial of Battlefield Monuments_ by D. Scott Hartwig and Ann Marie Hartwig. Scott Hartwig has written for the Gettysburg Magazine and is superintendant of the NPS research library at Gettysburg. His book like Kathy Harrison's contains a sketch of the history of monumentation on the battlefield and a picture of almost every monument on the field. It is a very useful catalog to refer to when studying other sources of information about the monuments, as you can see a photo of the monument in question.

Vanderslice's _Gettysburg Then and Now_ is a seminal work on the creation of the battlefield and the erection of the monuments thereupon, during the 1st 30 years following the battle. This book will tell you such information as which monument was the first erected outside the National Cemetery as well as which was the first regimental monument erected on the field (2d Mass monument near Spangler's Spring in 1879). This book is not as readily available, but Morningside bookstore may be able to get it for you.

The various state monument commission books are difficult to find outside of Civil War Bookshows, or old bookstores, such as the Farnsworth House in Gettysburg. But if you can find a set of _Pennsylvania at Gettysburg_ and _New York at Gettysburg_ (running about $100 - 150 for a 2 vol Pennsylvania set on the average, and about $150 for the 3 vol NY set) you will find a great amount of information about the monuments as well as the regiments that erected them. The monument commission books contain the speeches and dedicatory exercises conducted for the monuments of the State represented by the commission. I will finish this with an excerpt of the address given Set 11,1889 by Col H. N. Warren, at the dedication ceremonies for the monument to the 142d Pa. Vol Infantry regiment:

"Comrades: We are here today to perform one of the most solemn duties of our lives-to dedicate this monument to the sacred memory of our brave and faithful associates who, a quarter of a century ago marched with us shoulder to shoulder in the line of duty, and who did more than we, for, as Providence whould have it, they gave up their lives that their country might live..."

"This monument, comrades, will tell the world-yes, generations yet unborn, that the men who composed the One hundred and forty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers were patriots; it will be our silent yet potential monitor proclaiming our sacrifice to loyalty, our love for the Union, and our devotin to the stars and stripes. It will impress our children when we are gone, with the fact that their fathers dared to die that their country might live...This monument, comrades, will live for ages after we have been laid to rest 'under the shade of the trees.' It will be an evidence that the One hundred and forty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers was one of the regiments of the old First Corps which, on the 1st day of July, 1863, under the gallant Reynolds, first intercepted and gave battle to the great army of invaders who were then, with almost superhuman efforts, trying to transfer the seat of war into Pennsylvania, lay waste her beautiful homes, and, if possible, capture and take possession of her populous cities..."

From: ( TERRY MOYER) Subject: Re: LRT

For Patrick King:
To get a good idea of what Gettysburg looked like shortly after the battle I recommend 3 books for you. _Gettysburg A Journey In Time_, by Wm Frassanito, _The Gettysburg BiCentennial Album_ by Wm. Frassanito, and _Gettysburg Then and Now_ by John Vanderslice. Each of these books contains a very large number of photographs of the post-battle field.

Journey in Time contains photos primarily taken within the 1863-1866 time frame. Then and Now has over 125 photos of the field taken within 30 years of the battle. The Bicentennial Album has photos of Gettysburg spanning a time period from the earliest known photo of the burg, to about the 1940s-50s time frame.

I believe all 3 books are available from The Morningside Bookshop, 258-260 Oak Street, Dayton Ohio 45410 Ph: 1-800-648-9710. Fax 1-513-461-4260. Vanderslice has been out of print at Morningside, but they promise to reprint it once they have 100 orders for it, and I don't think that will take to long for them to get. You can tell them you would like a current catalog so that you can order from them and you will be amazed at the fantastic Civil War specific reading they supply.

Morningside also publishes the Gettysburg Magazine. One stop shopping for all your reading needs!

In general the Gettysburg battlefield is much more wooded today. Culp's Hill, Little Round Top, actually just about everywhere you go, you will find that there is very much non-historic vegetation. You will see this if you have a chance to study the photographs in the 3 books named above (not to mention seeing all the urban/commercial glut which has grown up around the field).

Many people feel that there are too many monuments at Gettysburg. I think that these people view them as artificial and an intrusion on the battlefield. In my opinion, nothing could be farther from the truth. The monuments are witnesses that were left behind by the veterans of the Gettysburg battle. Their purpose is to stand on the field to represent the men of the regiments who fought there. The monuments were placed by the men who did battle on the field to tell their story to the generations that are yet to come.

Many people are overwhelmed by the profusion of markers on the field. What they often do not realize is that the markers are placed according to specific rules, originally set forth by the first custodians of the field, the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association. Because of the monuments and markers, the Gettysburg battlefield is a self-interpreting memorial. For those who know how to read the field, no guide is needed. Here are some of those rules as adopted by the GBMA July 3, 1887:

When you look at the monuments that were erected after 1887 you will see that they almost all follow the recommendation written above. Monuments that were erected previous to 1887 (the Massachusetts monuments for example) often have very little writing upon them. Their lack of significant inscription is usually a sign that you are looking at a monument that is older than most, and sadly, you can also see that you cannot learn very much about that particular regiment from it's monument on the field. By the way, the batteries represented on the field contain cannon of the same type as originally used by the battery during the battle. All the cannon are sighted upon positions on the field targeted at&127; some point by the command, during the battle.

When you know the story behind the placement of the monuments at Gettysburg, they take on a much greater meaning than you first suspect.


Religious Interpretations

From: ( John Schuurman )
Subject: monuments

Hello Bergers,
I am a pastor of a church and have recently been taking my congregation through the OT book of Joshua focusing on the all the monuments that the Children of Israel build or leave behind. (4:1-9; 7:26; 8:28-29; 10:27; 22:26-28; 24:25-27). The pillars, or heaps, or altars, are all for the purpose of witness to the succeeding generations of what happened there. (note particularly 4:6).

The book, written (I think) durning the time of the Judges, contains the phrase that the stones (or other artifacts) "remain to this day". In terms of the history of redemption in biblical terms, this is designed for the purpose of perpetuating the faith of the sophomore generation and their heirs who were not eye-witnesses to the mighty acts and huge confrontations that occured at the sites.

Always the burden of history is to help those who come later appreciate and understand. Nothing quite like a big stone or monument to help in the story telling. Gives a kid something to identify with; something to run his hands over and marvel at. "At this place something happened that touches you. Something very big. Can you feel the earth shake? Someone went to a lot of trouble to tell you about it."

The monuments (in Joshua) are also for covenant keeping. They represent promises that were made there. They are seals of the faithfulness and certitude of the promise keepers.

Certainly the monuments at Gettysburg function in similar ways. The stained ground, the sacrifices, the desperate charges, were all in the interest of having it not happen again. These stones tell of it.

I say keep the monuments!

John Schuurman

Subject: Re: John Schuurman & monuments

Hi John,
I enjoyed your message relating the monuments at Gettysburg with biblical monuments and the purpose and significance they were meant to convey to the Children of Israel. Religion played a big role in the life of the victorian soldier and the biblical symbolism and meaning of the monuments was not lost on them. I thought you might enjoy this portion of a&127;&127; speech given by Major Chillon W. Hazzard of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association during the dedication ceremonies of the Pennsylvania monuments. Major Hazzard is giving the speech on the behalf of the GBMA, accepting the Pennsylvania monuments into the care of the association. It is a very lengthy talk, full of allusions to other monuments, and in it's entirety it is much longer than I feel capable of typing here. However you will find the complete text starting on Pg 97 in _Pennsylvania at Gettysburg_ Vol. 1. The speech is entitled:

'What Mean These Stones'

"We read in the Bible of Joshua: How that great General, in his campaign against Jericho, when he came to the Jordan, the river parted, and the children of Israel passed over dry shod.

In commemoration of this event the Lord directed Joshua to have one man from each tribe take up a stone, and having come to the other side, build there a monument.

And the reason of it was this: So that, when your children ask, in time to come, "What mean these stones?" It shall be told to them that the Lord showed his favor to the children of Israel. The monument set up at Gilgal was to "tell the story" to the children in time to come.

You are here today to set up a pile of stones, as did Israel at Gilgal, to tell the story to those who may come after you, and who will ask, "What mean these stones?"

... What, then, will these stones tell to the children of men? The answer has been given by immortal lips. They will tell of Pennsylvanians who died here that this Government of the people shall not perish forever from the earth. These stones, these monuments, will say to the children of men, as Abraham Lincoln said when he dedicated yonder monument: 'Gather ye here increased devotion to the cause for which they gave their lives.'

And now, in the name of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, we accept these monuments, and will give them our tenderest care. ( Benedict R Maryniak )
Subject: John Schuurman & monuments

Even though I'm conflicted about being called a "berger," I fully agree with John Schuurman's message about monuments. I'll even go as far as saying that Antietam would be better off with more of 'em.

Ironic, though, that Gettysburg's fields of stone were cultivated by as areligious a man as Dan Sickles. Rabid republican George Templeton Strong once said of democrat Dan that he was "one of the bigger bubbles in the scum of the legal profession, swollen and windy, and puffed out with fetid gas - one might as well try to spoil a rotten egg as to damage Dan's character."

Ben Maryniak

Strong Vincent Monument and Medal of Honor

From: (Benedict R Maryniak)

There is no certainty about the place where Strong Vincent was mortally wounded (not to mention at which farm he died five days later). The traditional account has him running toward his right flank to stiffen the resolve of the 16th Michigan when he was hit - that spot is traditionally placed on LRT's south slope, marked by a small white stone. The boulder atop LRT, just north of the 12th/44th NYV "castle", bears a carving (the carving is older than the white stone, although the white stone was among the first five markers placed on the Gburg battlefield) that claims Vincent met his end on the rock. Mike Priest (author of Antietam The Soldiers Battle, etc) and I have long felt that the boulder would have been a likely spot from which to observe the brigade, spread out as it was, mid-way up the LRT slope. I dunno which is correct, but I know the preponderance of tradition is with the small white marker.


Th following speech was given at the dedication ceremony for the 83d Penna monument, Sept 11, 1889. The source of the quote is of course Penna at Gettysburg. The editor and compiler of the book (at least my 1914 edition): John P. Nicholson



SEPTEMBER 11, 1189


"Comrades: - When some years ago the proposition was first made to our association to erect, on this historic field, a memorial in honor of those who here fought and fell, it was well-understood that there would be difficulties to meet and obstacles to overcome. When a committee was appointed to carry out the project, it was known that the duties and labours of the committee would be various and arduous, requirng a considerable sacrifice of time; but it was manifestly proper that the idea should be carried out, and that the monument so erected should have inscribed upon it the names of those who here gave their lives in defense of our government against the assaults of armed treason. It was also fitting that such a memorial shaft should be surmounted by a statue of our leader, the gifted, genial, gallant Vincent, who here, with the others named, gave his young life, with all its future bright prospects, a sacrifice upon the altar of his country.

After years of effort on your part, and after considerable progress had been made, the State of Pennsylvania came to your aid, and made the success of the undertaking not only possible but readily practicable, and to-day we behold in this beautiful monument the end of your labors and the consummation of our desires."

Vincent is a uniquely recognizable individual (he has Strong features - sorry, but who could resist?). When you look at his portrait statue atop the 83d monument there is no mistaking who is the officer represented there.

From Brian Bennett

The Vincent group announced plans to request a Congressional Medal of Honor in January of 1995. The dedication of the statue was this past September and no announcement was at that point, so the natural assumption is that he did not receive it, or else it may still be in progress (didn't see it in the Contract with America).

The Col. Patrick Henry O'Rorke Memorial Society contacted a Rochester-area member of Congress for the purpose of exploring the possibility of a Medal of Honor for O'Rorke. The request was forwarded to the Dept. of the Army along with a seven-page informational package. We felt at the time that we had precedence for the award in terms of the time factor and the fact that O'Rorke had been killed. Although current MOH regulations require the award be given within two years of the date of action, the last Civil War MOH was granted in 1917. Also, a cursory glance at the MOH recipients show at least five that received MOHs in actions in which they were killed or mortally wounded.

We were aware at that time of the 1917 tribunal that examined all CW MOH cases and rescinded 910 medals, but were unaware of a 1918 law that swept the slate clean of claims for Civil War medals. Since then no medals for CW actions have been awarded, although in 1989 five names struck in 1917 were reinstated. The O'Rorke Society was turned down for these "statute of limitations" reasons, although I could not find a copy of the letter with the official wording.

In August of 1995 at a Clarence, NY (outside Buffalo) Civil War show I talked with some of the people manning the Vincent table there. They were aware of the O'Rorke efforts, but said they had further precendents which they felt would allow awarding the medal to Vincent.

In retrospect, speaking for myself, success for either party would probably have been more trouble than it was worth. Can you imagine how many groups and ancestors would start petitioning for MOH? I believe that the system, whatever its shortcomings or exclusions, should be left alone.

Vincent did receive the honor of a brigadier-general's commission, awarded by Meade. O'Rorke was strangely ignored of even any official commendation from either his corps (and former division) commander George Sykes or his division commander Romeyn Ayres. Sykes gushed over Vincent and Weed but made only a cursory mention of O'Rorke. Why? I don't know. The O'Rorke Memorial Society succeeded in raising $8,000 for a larger-than-life bronze bust of O'Rorke, as well as two large museum-quality interpretive panels which accompany the bust. One panel describes activities on the homefront in Rochester and Monroe County during the war; the second panel has information on O'Rorke and the fighting units of Monroe County. It is currently housed in the visitor's center of a city-run museum at the Browns Race Historical District in downtown Rochester, situated above the middle falls of the Genesee River. The bust and display will be moved when an expansion of the downtown library is completed. The Society in the past year also commissioned an artist to do a painting of O'Rorke on Little Round Top (I have already posted info on the prints) and that painting will also most likely move into the library. However the Society has not had success in gaining the civic cooperation/recognition that Erie has done with Vincent. We can't even get a school named after O'Rorke, despite written School Board rules that give precendence to Rochesterians of note. O'Rorke was a graduate of the Rochester Public Schools who made good - first in his class at West Point. The school which O'Rorke attended (No. 9) is the Frederick Douglass school, so no chance of a change there, but a recently a school was named after famous Rochesterian (read sarcasm) Roberto Clemente (and I am a life-long Pirates' fan).

>From Ben Maryniak

New York Monuments on Other Fields

From: (Benedict R Maryniak)
Subject: David Ireland wasn't forgotten

A few days back, someone commented on the role played by Colonel Ireland and the 137th NYV on Culp's Hill. Though not forgotten for his contribution at Culp's Hill, Binghamton NY boy Ireland has his own monument at Lookout Mountain, where he took over for the wounded George Greene. This brings up the tangential subject of New York monuments outside of Gettysburg. Whether or not you ever wanted to know, here they all are:

Assorted Monuments

From: (Benedict R Maryniak)
Subject: Power's Hill

Artillery monuments on Powers Hill which mark the positions of Cothran's, Rigby's, & Knapp's Batteries are linked to a pair on either side of Hunt Avenue where it ends in the Baltimore Pike. All under XII Corps artillery chief Lt Edward Muhlenberg, these regular batteries of Kinzie and Rugg joined the Powers Hill guns (and Taft's NY Battery on Cemetery Hill) in a unique 15-minute barrage early on July 3 that was supposed to soften up Johnson's division before an attack by Geary. Despite the Yankee artillery, the Confederates beat Geary to the punch and the artillery was ordered to continue firing into the CSA left, their rounds going over Pardee field and Spangler's Spring, over the heads of Union troops. Though no good accounts exist to say what the artillery did to the Johnnies, the 20th Connecticut monument on Culp's Hill was unveiled in 1885 by armless George Warner, who was one of many victims of "friendly fire" early on July 3.

Subject: Power's Hill/OR's

Ben, I liked your description of how Kinzie and Rugg(? not familiar with him) fit into the Power's hill artillery barrage against Culp's hill. I always see Kinzie's granite marker when I cut over to the Baltimore road via Hunt avenue, but I always have trouble picturing where exactly everyone was shooting. When you mentioned the rounds passing over Pardee and the area around Spangler's, that helps me picture the barrage. The heavy forestation of Power's (not to mention Culp's) hills today is not very conducive to interpreting events. I read the story of George Warner too, but never quite pictured where the rounds that hit him came from. Your little dissertation made it click for me. It is funny how you can read something one time and reread it a year or two later and it makes so much more sense (as you begin to recognize more and more of the puzzle pieces and where they fit in).

From: (Benedict R Maryniak)
Subject: out-of-the-way park sites

The 5th Ohio's owl. Along the park road on the north edge of Pardee Field stand monuments to the 147th PV (shaped like a star) and 5th OVI. Walk behind the 5th's monument to a rise and you'll find the unit's owl "mascot" urging "Boys, keep the colors up" on a circular plaque set into the rocks where the unit was actually deployed. Though I've never found mention of it, Ohio monuments at Gburg have various animal badges. On the higher of Culp's Hills, either the 29th or the 7th Ohio has a rooster badge. I first thought that the 5th's owl had something to do with german members - the 20th NYV was raised by the New York Turnverein, whose symbol was an owl (the theme of the 20th's monument at Antietam), but I don't think that is the answer.

Subject: Re: out-of-the-way park sites

Hi Ben,
Loved your 5th OVI owl plaque site. Almost everyone misses that one. I have an obscure monument site for you. How about the 54th NY advanced position marker? It is hidden way down in front of Barlow's Knoll almost against Rock Creek. To find it walk down the slope of BK towards the northeast in the direction of Rock Creek. Start roughly from the position of the 17th Conn. monument. The monument stands about 3 feet high and is usually pretty well hidden by the brush that grows around it.

The Capt Henry Fuller monument is another interesting find, off all the park avenues. Starting at the 17th Maine monument, jump the wall at the southern end of the Wheatfield and walk back into the woods. You will find the monument near Rose Run.

A place that is not really that obscure, yet is seldom visited even by those of us who return to Gettysburg often is the Slyder farm. It lies in the attack path of Law's brigade against Devil's Den and the Round Tops. When the crowds are heavy on the field, a walk down to the Slyder farm will get you away from them and give you a nice contemplative and peaceful piece of the Battlefield to relax upon. Some nice sharpshooters monuments are down there too - not many people see them either. The Vermont Sharpshooter "Hornet's Nest" monument is one of my favorites.

From: (Kevin P Leahy
Subject: 118th Flank markers

A possible reason for there being two flank markers for the 118th PA is that the regiment's right flank was pulled back to face the Rose farm before the assault of Anderson and Kershaw. The 118th PA held the right of Tilton's line and Tilton's brigade made up the right of the Union position in the Wheatfield at the time. This is only a guess. Maybe someone out there has positive info to back the claim.

Kevin Leahy

From: Alexander Cameron)
Subject: 118th flank markers

Kevin wrote:
>A possible reason for there being two flank markers for the 118th PA is >that the regiment's right flank was pulled back to face the Rose farm >before the assault of Anderson and Kershaw.

Kevin, If I read what Terry wrote correctly, the markers are in the same position. Two sets marking the same position. I think they both reflect the right wing of the regiment being "refused to the right at a sharp angle." There was also a withdrawal ("change front to the rear on 10th Company, battalion about face, by company right half wheel, march!") to a position near the Trostle Farm but that position has its own monument and flank markers.


From: (Benedict R Maryniak)
Subject: 118th PA flank markers

One marker indicates the 118th's right flank, the other identifies the 118th's right as the brigade's right flank as well.

From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: 118th flank markers

Ben, That makes sense (as terry said, the right marker has "right of brigade" on top). I wonder about the extra left flank marker. They do appear to be&127; brigade markers but I don't recall similar markers on the field. The left marker shows the unit (1st Mich.) to the left. I'm certainly not an expert on flank markers but having an extra set with one between two regiments showing which regiments were on the right and left seems unusual.


From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Corn Exchange

For Terry Moyer:
I was thinking about possible sources for the 118th article and something dawned on me. I have corresponded with the curator (Steven Wright) of The Civil War Library and Museum in Philadelphia on some signal manuscripts. Mr. Wright has written several articles for Gettysburg Magazine. Since the 118th was a Philadelphia regiment, there is a good chance that they will have material on the regiment. I will write him tomorrow.


From: (Benedict R Maryniak
Subject: blank markers on the field

Talking about the Corn Exchange flank markers made me think of two stone markers on the field which have nothing at all on them. One is in the Sherfy farm front yard between the 57th PA monument and its left flank marker. The other is across Pleasonton Ave from the PA monument. The 2nd NY Cavalry has its marker in that area (for the life of me, these troopers engraved a marijuana plant across the front of their marker!) and the blank flank marker is to the northeast of the 2nd NY Cav and very near an east-west stone wall.

Ben Maryniak

From: (Alexander Cameron)
I've never been real smart on monuments but sure appreciate them. One of my favorites is on Oak Ridge near the base of the observation tower. I can't remember the regiment (It is in Baxter's brigade line, could be the 83rd NY or the 88th PA) but it is an amazing work. It appears that they wanted to include every icon of the war they could think of. If memory serves, it has an eagle, drum, knapsack, musket, American flag, bugle, canteen, cap, oak leaves, sword, cannon and a gun carriage wheel. Now I may have exaggerated a little bit but not much! I would sure hate to have to clean it! If you have one of the monument location books ( I don't), maybe there is a picture of it. I know my wife and I always get a kick out of it when we are on Oak Ridge.


Subject: A few notes

Bill Cameron and Eileen Murphy
Eileen, 'The Stalwart Oak' tree of the 90th Penna is certainly a favorite monument that we have enjoyed frequently on our group visits to the field. I especially like the tree-stump flank markers the 90th uses to mark their line.

Bill is admiring the 88th Penna monument, erected by the boys from my hometown, Reading Pa. (Where our favorite scholar John B. Bachelder was a professor in a military school here for a time in the 1850s, and where he earned his title of Col. Bachelder. - See Gb Magazine #3, pg 115) Fred Hawthorne also features this monument (the 88th) in his book, and as Bill and Fred both point out, the monument contains "nearly twenty different pieces of equipment a soldier would be familiar with, the monument is interesting to look at for a few minutes to see how many of these you can identify...The most prominent feature of the monument is the stack of war materials over which has been tossed the symbolic laurel wreath of victory. Atop the stack sits a large eagle with outstretched wings gazing over the field of battle." (Men and Monuments pg 30).

From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Baby Birds!

Eileen Murphy wrote:
"baby birds." Good grief. I remember the 90th's monument. It is a tree trunk with bronze accouterments. It shows where the 90th was used to refuse the right of the brigade line to meet O'neal. . Eileen, I can't remember what all that stuff was piled upon. Maybe a tent. See if your book shows or describes the monuments for the 12 Mass, 88 PA, 83 NY or the 11 PA. It's got to be one of them.

Knowing your interest in the lore of the park, are you familiar with the story that the ghosts of Iverson's men walked the fields in front of Baxter's brigade line. Iverson, as you know, was accused of "hiding on Oak Hill" while his North Carolinian were being slaughtered in the field in front of Baxter's Brigade. Iverson even reported that a whole NC regiment had surrendered and gone over to the enemy. Anyway, the North Carolinians were buried in a mass grave and they wander the fields around the Eternal Light monument. You can see them on a dark summer night. You can feel the cool breeze as they search for their sorry brigade commander. Maybe all that stuff was piled up on the monument so the Carolinians could use it.


From: (Benedict R Maryniak)
Subject: military glut monument on Oak Ridge

Terry Moyer beat me in picking the 88th PA monument as the one on Oak Ridge with everything including the kitchen sink. It has an eagle laying an egg atop a drum, cannon tube, and a mess of accouterments. If you want a more-lurid example, check the McClellan equestrian monument in Washington&127;&127; DC. There's a sort of bas relief on the front that includes every military article imaginable.

Ben Maryniak

From Eileen Murphy

The Irish Brigade monument is my particular favorite at Gettysburg. I've even been known to place a long stemmed red rose there every once in awhile! "Riam Nar Druid O Shairn Lann"

The 90th PA. is one of my favorites in Oak Ridge Quoting from Fred Hawthorne's "Gettysburg: Stories of Men and Monuments"...."Carved to represent a tree on the field that had been torn and shattered by artillery fire, bronze accouterments, a knapsack, a rifled-musket, and a canteen are slung over one of the shattered branches. Ivy, also sculpted in bronze, has begun to climb the remaining trunk at the top of which is a bronze nest with baby birds resting inside. Perched on the nest, the mother watches over her brood. The intention was to symbolize a regeneration of life amidst the debris of battle and the start of a new era of peace and goodwill.

"A variation of the story behind this monument has been handed down through the years. No written source for it has yet been found. The story relates that during the heat of the battle one of the large oak trees near the position of the 90th PA was hit by a shell and splintered. A large piece of the tree and many small branches came raining down on the men. On the ground among the debris, was a robin's nest filled with unharmed, but quite shaken babies. A soldier witnessing the scene picked up the nest. Under heavy fire and at great risk to his own life, the soldier climbed up the shattered stump and replaced the nest. Whether or not the incident actually took place, the tree and the nest combine to form a unique record of the 90th PA's participation at Gettysburg."

You're right about cleaning it....It must be one heck of a job!!!

Locations of Sites

Subject: Re: Locations of....

McAllister Mill Site: I'd say it's about 1 - 1 1/2 miles SE of Gettysburg. Head South along the Baltimore Pike till you see Mulligan MacDuffer Miniature Golf Course on your left. Pull in and park in their lot. McAllister Mill Road borders the golf course on the south. You will be passing through private property so you may want to check with the locals before venturing to the mill site. Follow the path to the left through the wooded area towards Rock Creek. Eventually, you will see a deep bowl like depression in the ground where the mill building itself used to stand. The last time I was in that area (May), there were some old tires and other trash lying in the bottom of it. A little beyond this hole, you can still see some of the remains of the old mill trace. Before the McAllister Mill Dam was destroyed by a storm in 1877 this whole area was a popular area for swimmers and fisherman. Now it's lost a little of its popularity, but still remains a quiet off the beaten path location for explorers such as we.

Granite School House Site: From Gettysburg, drive south down the Taneytown Road, pass the Hummelbaugh and Patterson farms. Take a left onto Granite School House Road. The school/field hospital location is approximately 1.5 miles on the left in the wooded area. Unfortunately, we found no remains of the school house in our search...only 20th century infringements. One hundred-thirty plus years certainly can change a landscape! The Second Corps division hospitals were located here prior to their being moved nearer Rock Creek.

Jacob Schwartz Farm: From Gettysburg, drive south along the Baltimore Pike, past Route 15. Take the second right after Route 15 onto White Church Road (there's actually a church on the corner). If you can find a safe place to pull over (it's a busy two lane road) near Rock Creek, do so. Walk north following Rock Creek. Just north of where Rock Creek meets White Run is the Jacob Schwartz Farm. This was the site of one of the largest field hospitals established after the Battle of Gettysburg, including that of Union General Hancock's Second Corps.

Benner's Hill: From The Diamond in the Square, take the York Road. Continue to the right onto the Hanover Road when you come to the folk in the road. As you drive up the inclined road, keep alert for a small park sign on your right telling you where to turn onto Benner's Hill. It comes up quickly so be aware of the traffic behind you as you plan your right hand turn. You get a spectacular view from these battery locations so be sure to bring a pair of binoculars. Also, you may want to walk across the Hanover Road. Beside the cannons located there, you will see the very few remaining piles cannon balls that used to sit beside each cannon in the park. (Yes, that's what those concrete slabs were for!!!)

Drew, if you're interested in exploring many of the field hospital sites (many of which are located away from the populated tourist areas), I'd suggest your purchasing a copy of Gregory Coco's "A Vast Sea of Misery: A History and Guide to the Union and Confederate Field Hospitals at Gettysburg, July 1-November 20, 1863" at the Park's Visitors' Center (1988 hard cover, $29.95). It's a wealth of information and includes maps and photographs of the sites then and now.

Enjoy your trip to the Burg. We'll all be looking forward to your trip report when you return!

From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Hospital sites

Pls forgive me for being lazy on the hospital site issue. I have a bibliography that covers the hospitals extensively. Here it is:

Cross, Andrew B. BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG AND THE CHRISTIAN COMMISSION.Baltimore: By the Author, 1865. 32 p. E635C95.

Daniels, Elizabeth. "The Aftermath of Battle." GETTYSBURG COMPILER 1(1988): pp. 21-27. e475.53G468.1988.

Deaderick, Robert D. "Field Medical Support of the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg." Paper, AWC, 1989. 37 p. AD-A207-470.Arch. (This is the War College Paper I mentioned earlier)

Duncan, Louis C. "The Greatest Battle of the War: Gettysburg." MIL SURGEON 33 (1913): pp. 201-228 & 401 - 429. Per.

Gaff, Alan D. "The Indiana Relief Effort at Gettysburg." GETTYSBURG MAG 3 (Jul 1990) pp. 109-114. E475.53G482no3.

Hancock, Cornelia. SOUTH AFTER GETTYSBURG: LETTERS, 1863-1868. NY: Crowell, 1956. 288 p. E621H29A3.1956.

Hoffsommer, Robert D. "TKhe Aftermath of Gettysburg." CWTI 2 (Jul 1963): pp. 49-52 Per.


Long, Roger. "A Surgeon's Handiwork" GETTYSBURG MAGAZINE 12, pp. 83-84.


Patriot Daughters of Lancaster. HOSPITAL SCEANS AFTER THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, July, 1863. Ann Arbor, MI: Univ Microfilms, 1973. 61 p. E475.53P3.1973.


. Hope this helps.

Monuments That Aren't

From: ( Alexander Cameron )
Subject: Gettysburg Trips/Signal Stations

On the Cope issue (Engineer of the park), he objected (to a signal corps monument) because the use of the rock had been granted fourteen years earlier to the 5th NYV Veteran Association. He also thought that the "signal rock" was the rock twenty feet in the rear [E.B. Cope to the Gettysburg National Park Commission, Jan 10, 1900]. When the Signal Corps Veteran's Association could not use that rock, they downsized their plans and simply put a tablet on the "signal rock".


For Bill Cameron....
That was interesting about Cope and the change of plans for the Signal Corps monument. I'm wondering now if anyone has ever compiled a list of monuments that never made it at Gettysburg. In addition to the Signal Corps monument, I can think of the controversial one to Pickett which ended up as his grave marker at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond and the one to the 15th Alabama which was planned to be placed on Oates Rock on Little Round Top (with Chamberlain's blessing) but never materialized. Are there any others that you or anyone else knows of?

FrFrom: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Monuments

Subject: Field report (1918)

I just received in the mail today the _Report of the Gettysburg National Military Park Commission 1918_ There are some interesting items in here which I will share with you shortly, but first a question; does anyone else out there have any of these reports that they would like to trade Xerox copies of? If so, let me know.

I don't know how many of you are aware of a movement to erect a statue to JLC at Gettysburg. I haven't followed it closely, but I understand that the people involved have shifted their attention from placing the statue on Little Round Top to erecting it somewhere near JLC's home in Maine. I thought this whole idea of a statue for Chamberlain was something new, but under the broad heading of 'MONUMENTS AND MARKERS' on page 4 of the report is the following subheading:

'The Chamberlain and Howard Statues "There is nothing to report in the matter except that the site for the Chamberlain statue was fixed several years ago, Gen. Chamberlain being present."

I have never heard anything about a statue to Chamberlain before, does anyone have any information on this? ( TERRY MOYER) says: On Little Round Top there are 3 iron posts originally erected by Mass to mark the positions of the regiments engaged there (they were put up about 1882-83 by Bachelder and a committee of representatives from Mass). The iron posts originally contained signs (similar to the ones now standing at the angle) identifying the Mass. commands that held the position. On July 3 the 2d Mass Sharpshooters, 22 Mass and 18 Mass infantry regiments occupied a stone wall on the southern slope of LRT and that is where you will find the iron posts. This stone wall lies in front of the 83d Penna Monument (and statue of Vincent) and runs up the hill towards the 16th Mich monument. The signs are long gone, the last surviving sign (the 2d Mass SS) was removed in the early 70's and put into custodial storage. According to park files, the 2d SS was the only intact post and sign on LRT at the time the NPS acquired control of the field from the War Dept (around 1933?). If you have a copy of Styples _With a Flash of His Sword_, there is a copy of an 1893 blueprint of LRT in it, and it shows this area of LRT. If you look in front of the 83d monument and find the stone wall, you will see the posts marked on the blue print. The 2d Mass iron post no longer stands as it was removed intact to storage. However the 22d and 18th Mass are still there and almost never noticed by casual visitors to the field. Terry
1st Minnesota

Subject: 1st Minnesota/Monuments/Bachelder Vol 3.

From: (Alexander Cameron) >For the 1st Minnesota fans:

> I took a look at the Bachelder letters and there are several detailed >letters from Col. William Colvill, Jr. regarding the charge of the 1st >Minnesota. I know that some of you have a copy of the Bachelder Papers >but if those who do not are interested in these letters, I'll poke them >up for you. >Bill

From:Terry Moyer Here are the Bachelder references (with page number in Vol. 1 reference) for Colville and the first Minnesota:




If you have the reports of the Gettysburg Park Commissioners 1893-1904 you can find mention of the dedication of the 1st Minn monument on page 29. During a visit to the NPS library last winter I ran across the files that the park uses to document each and every monument on the field. The file for the 1st Minn monument notes that:

"The monument was struck by lightning on the afternoon of Ju.y 10, 1904, melting the lead pointing between the joints of the pedestal and base, and discoloring the die with streaks. The damage was repaired by bush-hammering (sic) off the discoloration, and by refilling the leaded joints. The repairs were done by the Zieglar firm of Gettsburg for $15."

In the Commissioner Reports 1893-1904 you can also read remarks concerning the Hancock statue on East Cemetery Hill which was also struck by lightning. From the note heap:

"Hancock statue struck by lightning July 7 1897 (p40), repaired 1902 (pg80), remounted 1903 (pg88)."

Little Round Top Topography

From: " James F. Epperson "
Subject: Vegetation

No, this is not a message about Civil War era menus . . .

When I started going to Gettysburg in the 1970's, the crest of Little Round Top was totally overgrown with trees, to the point that the casual visitor could not understand the military significance of the place -- you couldn't see anything from up there. Ditto for the top of Devil's Den: from Smith's artillery position you could see just to the other side of road before the trees began.

I remember talking to one of the NPS people and they said they had gotten permission to cut back the trees to restore the sightlines to something approximating the 1863 situation; the next time I went there the effect was quite dramatic.

From: " 'Lisa Mucha '"
Subject: Condition of LRT

Re: LRT then and now....

I recently purchased the 2 volume set "Pennsylvania at Gettysburg". It has a picture of the 83rd PA monument at the time of its dedication and there are *no* trees behind it. Those who visit the Burg now will note that this monument is barely visible through all the trees. I asked a ranger at the visitor's center desk about this and he said that the area of Vincent's spur where th 83rd PA was did not have many trees at the time of the battle. So it appears that while the front of LRT is kept free of trees by the Park Service, the condition of VIncent's Spur is not too good.

From: ( Alexander Cameron )
Subject: Condition of LRT
For Lisa Mucha:

Thomas L. Schaefer is a professor at PennState and is THE expert on the conditions of LRT. He has lectured on the subject and I corresponded with him when I was working on an article. I thought you might enjoy part of his letter.

Professor Schaefer wrote, "LRT has alway been a beacon to me, and I've spent an inordinate amount of time up there. My recent interest has been focussed on the changes that have occurred since the battle, specifically the physical changes, the changes in people's perception, and the National Park Service's subsequent responses (i.e., preservation policies) to these changes.

I've been at this study for about five or six months. The impetus from which this work arose was a micro-study I offered here at the campus as a part of our ongoing course offering on the campaign and battle. Inputting together its material, I came to realize how much one can "tme travel" while traversing LRT's slopes. There are many diferent "Gettysburg" represented across this piece of real estate, but one must look for them carefully. They tell a lot about how different eras of battlefield managers and battlefield visitors reacted to his space. I'm expecting to turn this research into a publication within the next year. In looking through your questions, I should be able to help you fill in some blanks. Succinctly, the hill has been altered quite definitely over time. The road cutting, trolley line, monuments, and boulder removals (often for monument, bases on other parts of the field) have had striking, but probably not wholly dramatic effects on how the average tourist perceives the place. The breastworks are a different story. Only one small segment of those on the hill were actucally fought behind on 2 July (and this is even speculative); that segment is visible by the site of the 20th Maine's left flank marker. All the rest were erected after the day's fighting had ended, or in the instance of other segments of Vincent's or Weed's wall-building, they have been swallowed up or built over by those walls now extant. Those walls have been stacked and restacked repeatedly, so their configurationa nd alignment is now only symbolically representative. They could be as much as one to three feet away from their original lines; moreover, the Warren and Cope maps show different configurations. This I've not yet been able to plot out myself, but come late autumn, I shall.

You are also correct about a small building between the Tops. It, too, appears on Cope, but I've not wholly determined what it is all about. If you can wait a few months (this fall semester is a frightful one for me), I shall be able to give you much more thoughtfully contrived information..."[Letter, Thomas L. Schaefer to Alexander Cameron, September 21, 1994]

I hope this helps and you find it as interesting as I did.

National Cemetery Origins

From: ( Dennis Lawrence )
Subject: Gettysburg Cemetery

One plan for the burial of the dead in the National Cemetery did champion arrangement of the dead by rank and organization without regard to state. David Wills, a local lawyer, was Pennsylvania Governor Curtin's agent in the matter of Pensylvania dead at Gettysburg. He purchased options on land roughly in the area of the Angle, and proposed that the soldiers be placed by rank in companies, regiments, etc. without regard to state. He is often given the credit for the National Cemetery, but he probably was reacting to events by others.

Another local lawyer named David McConaughy proposed a plan for the National Cemetery which rested on the concept of the city state whose ideals were honored explicitly in Everett's address in November and implicitly in Lincoln's classical form of a Greek eulogy. McConaughy bought options on land that would place the National Cemetery next to the local Evergreen Cemetery of which he was on the board; in effect, he would make the National Cemetery an extension of the town cemetery. McConaughy favored placing the soldiers to rest within areas dedicated to their particular state without regard to rank.

Eventually, Governor Curtin stepped in to settle the dispute, and the site on Cemetery Hill won out. Wills gave up his more nationalistic layout to McConaughy's - and the states' - wishes that the dead of each state be buried together without regard to rank.

McConaughy, Wills, Curtin, and Lincoln were all Republicans. McConaughy was a local politician who perhaps sought leverage within Adams county, but not beyond. Wills, as Curtin's agent, sought a more national concept for the National Cemetery which would perhaps benefit Republicans nationwide.

Kathy Georg-Harrison, chief historian of the battlefield, writes "Even while the war ranged to determine the supremacy of the national government over states, the Union representatives still supported their own practical attitudes, wishing that the dead of each state be segregated from those of another." She credits neither Wills or McConaughy with the concept of a National Cemetery, citing Theodore Dimon, New York's agent on the field as the originator of the plan which led to The Soldier's National Cemetery at Gettysburg.


Minie Ball Authenticity

From: Tom Swankto
Subject: Bullets

While at Gettysburg in 1974, I purchased two bullets, which I was told were authentic, found on the battle field. Both are lead and look to be very old. They are light to medium brown in color with some whitish powder in the grooves and hollow.

Both bullets are .55 to .60 inch in diameter. One is about 1 inch long, has a conical tip, weighs about 1.1 oz, has three grooves at the bottom, and has what appears to be a conical shaped hollow. The other bullet only has two grooves at the bottom, and has a cylindrical shaped hollow. The tip of the second bullet is missing, and there is a small diameter drilled hole in the top. The man I bought the bullets from said the drill hole was done to remove the bullet from a rifle.

My daughter visited Gettysburg with her school class in 1992, and said you could not purchse any actual bullets any more. She did buy some replicas, one of which (described as "from" a .58 cal. Rifled Musket) looks similar to one of the bullets I have.

Does it sound like the bullets I purchased in '74 are authentic? Can you still purchase them? Do they have any value as a collectors item. Of course, I've always treasured them because of the story I was told.

Would appreciate any help.

Tom Swantko

FroFrom: ( TERRY MOYER )
Subject: Re: Bullets

Tom Swantko writes:
>While at Gettysburg in 1974, I purchased two bullets, which I was told >were authentic, found on the battle field. Both are lead and look to be >very old.

Bryan R. Meyer--Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania says
>From what I know, it does sound like the bullets you purchased back in 1974 are authentic. I was in Gettysburg in July, and I did get to purchase a few more bullets. They are authentic. The only place I could find them was the main Gettysburg Tour Center on Baltimore Street, across from the Dale Gallon Art Gallery.

I hate to be a bucket of cold water on the battle bullet discussion, but I have asked in several shops in Gettysburg (including the Baltimore Street tour center), 'where do you get your bullets?'. They have told me that the bullets come from old civil war camp sites and other areas in Va (not necessarily battle fields, but possibly unprotected land around battlefields) that are prospected by relic hunters for the artifacts.

I visit Gburg often and I know for a fact that the tour center has plastic tubs full of bullets-to-buy for $1 a piece. It seems unlikely that actual battle-of-Gettysburg bullets could be had, in the numbers necessary to supply the tourist traffic supported by the Gburg battlefield. Bullets id'd as battle-of-Gettysburg specific would be worth quite a bit more than $1 I am sure. Whether bullets from the battle were available in '74, I don't know. Maybe. IMHO I doubt it.

Even if the bullets are not Gettysburg specific though, they are still neat souvenirs. I have picked up several for my son and he loves them. My Dad picked up some and epoxied them to a piece of plastic with a little metal souvenir cannon and it looks great. I am amazed that there are even enough Civil War era bullets in old camping grounds that such a large number of them can be sold each year in all the tourist areas of all the battlefields where fine bullets are sold. To be honest I scratch my head a little when I consider how many bullets must be in the ground to supply the tourist trade... but it is not beyond the realm of possibility I guess, and at least to that extent, I am willing to 'suspend my disbelief'.

Terry Moyer

Topography of Sites

>Who knows the heights of Seminary Ridge, Cemetery Ridge, Culp's Hill, >Little Round Top and Big Round Top. Are there references which show topoographical >maps of the area?

A friend of mine goes hiking alot, and many hiking stores carry U.S. Geological Survey Maps of most of the state of Penna. (At least they do here in Penna...)

The following heights are from the U.S.G.S. maps for Gettysburg (which claim to be photo inspected 1981 (aerial photo that is): Peace Light 647 feet, Culp's Hill, 600 feet and 542 feet for the two summits, Little Round Top 650 feet, Big Round Top 785 feet. Seminary Ridge around the angle to lrt area seems to rise from 500 to 550 feet near lrt. The Seminary seems to be sitting on a contour line labeled 580. East Cem Hill looks to be between 580 and 600 foot contour lines. To get your own map and make your own interpretations I quote you from the legend at the bottom of the maps (2 of them) "For Sale by U.S. Geological Survey Denver, Colo. 80225, or Reston Va 22092" "A folder describing topographic maps and symbols is available on request." The two maps as near as I can make out, are identified as AMS 5563 I SW - SERIES V831. This map shows most of the battlefield but excludes the portions of the 1st days field west of the middle ridge, between the Seminary and the McPherson farm. The second map which contains the confederate area of the 1st days field and the McPherson farm area is DMA 5363 IV SE - SERIES V831

Aside from the contour information, you also get to see where all you favorite glut is situated on the map... swimming pools, the high school and so forth.

From: lawrence ( Dennis Lawrence )
Subject: Topography

Harry Pfanz describes the various areas in relationship to the nearest flat plain from which attacks would be launched.

About the crests of Little Round Top :

"Little Round Top can be described simplistically as having three elevations. The long north slope rises gradually about forty feet above the Wheatfield Road to a rock faced shelf on which the monuments of the 146th New York and 155th Pennsylvania stand today. This shelf in turn is at the base of another bluff of boulders that rises at the north end of the Hill's Crest (Warren Statue). From this north end of the crest the surface rises gently over a distance of fifty yards to a knob near center of the hil (Hazlet's Monument). From the knoll's crest, the surface declines gently one-hundred yards to the south (New York Castle).... Ten or fifteen feet below the crest is another shelf ... in all probability first visited by Vincent and became the right of his brigade line...

The south slope of the hill... faced the saddle between Little Round Top and ... Big Round Top... Vincent took Chamberlain to the tip of the spur probably to a point amid the rocks beneath the large boulder on which the monument to the Twentieth Maine stands today. This would be the Twentieth's left" (_Gettysburg The Second Day_ pp. 209-212).

Harry Pfanz describes Culp's Hill area this way:

"(Culp's Hill) had two peaks; the highest (where the tower is today) 180 feet above Rock Creek, was about 800 yards southeast of Cemetery Hill and was conected to it by a sagging crest line that included Steven's knoll. The lower peak was 400 yards south of the taller summit and was separated from it by a narrow saddle that notched the hill from east to west. The lower creek rose about eighty feet above the creek... It was about 850 yards from the highest peak to the meadow at Spangler's Springs" (pages 111 -112 _Culp's Hill and _Cemetery Hill_.

About Benner's Hill Pfanz says :

"The hill's crest extended about three hundred yards south-southwest from the Hanover Road and 500 yards north-northeast of it. The crest loomed 100 feet above Rock Creek at the hill's base... The south end of Benner's Hill was 1,000 yards northeast of Culp's Hll and 1,500 yards east-northeast of East Cemetery Hill." (169-170).


Monument Preservation


Hello, Everybody....
This past weekend at the Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg Fall Muster I attended an interesting seminar on the "Monumentation and Maintenance of the Battlefield". It was held at Gettysburg Junior High School, and despite the hard classroom chairs and teenager sized desks, everyone seemed to be thoroughly engrossed in Lynn Goddard's and Fred Hawthorne's presentations. Lynn was the supervisor of the Park's maintenance crew and will soon leave Gettysburg to further her studies in preserving artifacts. She gave a wonderful slide presentation and talk, showing us the step-by-step process of preserving the bronze and granite monuments on the field. It was fascinating! I thought I'd share a few highlights with you.....

In the preservation process, the maintenance crew has four major goals: (1) preserve (stabilize) NOT restore the monument; (2) be as gentle as possible; (3) make sure the process is reversible; and (4) change no characteristics about the monument.

If corrosion is found on the bronze statues/pieces, it is removed with crushed walnut shells (sand is too course and exposes new metal.) Lichens or other organic growth on the piece are removed with hydrogen peroxide. The monument is then washed down with soap and rinsed off (400 lbs of pressurized water). Moisture is removed by heating the bronze to 170 degrees using a welder's torch. While the metal is hot, a thin coat of beeswax is hand brushed onto the monument. (Although wax has half the life&127;&127; of lacquer it is preferred because it's gets into all those little nooks and crannies!! Also, lacquer tends to create air bubbles.) While the metal is still hot, a second coat of wax is melted into the first coat. When the metal is cold, a third coat (bowling alley wax) is applied and buffed to a shine. Normally, the waxing lasts on the finished monument for about 5 years.

Granite parts of monuments are repointed with soft mortar. Should someone vandalize a granite piece with a magic marker, the damaged portion (graffiti) needs to be 'lifted' from the surface by a poultice method. A bleach paste is applied and a 'bandage' is taped over it and left to set. Several days later the poultice is removed, and, hopefully, the damage area has faded and is no longer noticeable. Otherwise, the process is repeated. Now those tablets are another matter! The letters are painstakingly painted on them and the background coloring is handpainted around the lettering!!! It takes time....and patience!!!

We saw some slides of the Vermont Sharpshooters Monument which was located on Berdan Avenue. This marble columned monument with an eagle on top was destroyed last year during a storm when a tree toppled on top of it. The eagle was smashed into 500 pieces and the column broke in several places. The original eagle could not be used again. The Park had no good photographs which a sculptor could use as a model to make a replacement. The park crew slowly, but surely put the original eagle back together again piece by agonizing piece. Now THAT's dedication!

Not only does the crew of four do all this, but they also backfill land around the monuments, take care of storm damage, refurbish cannons, restore the gold leaf (on the Tennessee Monument), etc., etc., etc. Next, Fred Hawthorne, President of the Licensed Battlefield Guides Association, presented his slide presentation. He spoke about the history of the Battlefield Memorial Association and how Colonel Bachelder dedicated his life to help memorialize the men who fought there. He also noted that&127;&127; Gettysburg was very unique in that the actual veterans had a hand in the design and placement of the monuments....unlike any other CW battlefield.

You can be sure when I toured the monuments later that afternoon, I had a greater appreciation for them, the men they represented......and for the dedicated men and women who labor so hard to keep the monuments beautiful for us.

Eileen M. Murphy

From: Kevin P Leahy
Thanks for the post on monument preservation. I to look at the monuments in a different light. My first season working for the NPS was spent preserving the monuments at Manassas (thank goodness there is only about a dozen in the whole park!). After spending most of my time working on the monuments along New York Ave.,including the 5th NY gate, a bond was created between myself and these reminders of past deeds. The best times I experienced that season was when visitors would come and ask questions, not about the battle but considering the monuments and their care. I guess that experience carries over to whenever I visit Gettysburg. Most people never take the time to stop, get out of their vehicles, and actually read and look at these monuments. A very large portion of the Gettysburg story is told in these blocks of granite. Now I try to make every effort to visit that monument off the beaten path (I still visit the Irish Brigade of course). In a sense its a way of paying my respects. Once again thanks for the post.

A Former Monument Keeper,
Kevin Leahy

Camp Colt

From Terry Moyer On pg 8 of the 1918 Commissioners' Report is this interesting information. Although the commissioners state that the name of the encampment is not designated, the camp described is Camp Colt. The following makes me wonder when Camp Colt became known by that name:


A camp of instruction for United States Regulars was established at Gettysburg in May, 1917. The camp had no designation, which we believe is the practice when the location is at a conspicuous place on United States land, notably battlefields such as Gettysburg.

The Fourth United States Regulars went into camp June 2, 1917. The land first taken up was a part of the Codori farm and a tract along the Round Top Branch of the Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railroad, and occupied by the Fourth and Seventh Regiments. Both were increased by recruits and the camp extended over many acres. They were divided into six United States Regulars regiments, viz: Fourth, Seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, and Sixty-first. The troops were constantly drilling. The necessary buildings had been erected throughout the encampment and on October 25, 1917, the first of these troops left Gettysburg for other camping grounds and by November 26 all except a small detachment had gone. The encampment was reestablished on March 6, 1918, Capt. Eisenhower, United States Army, commanding, and now occupies 176 acres of the Codori farm, 10 acres of the Smith farm and 6 acres of the Bryan House place."

The report further states that the encampment was not furnished with any equipment "found so necessary in any encampment of troops. The commission was called upon to furnish the necessary facilities such as... "(etc.)

Jack McLauglin in _The Long Encampment_ Pg 239 fn 21 states: "Camp Colt first was established in May 1917, to train infantry soldiers. At the beginning of 1918 it was made into a tank training center."

Terry Moyer

From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Camp Colt

Terry wrote: >The following makes me wonder when Camp Colt became known by that name:

> Terry, Boy, I thought I could find out by looking in Eisenhower's AT EASE but I'm more confused now than before. Eisenhower's description of Camp Colt leads you to believe that it had the name prior to his arrival although he does not specifically say that. Anyway, here is the part that does not jive with the May 1917 date in your 1918 report. Eisenhower was reminiscing about his first days at the camp [March, 1918] and wrote,

"We ran up the United States flag on a pole that had been left there. As I was ready to get into an automobile to start the long drive back to Baltimore, I saw Captain Garner watching the flag flapping at the top. I paused and he said, without looking at me, "Captain, the last time I was on this ground was many years ago. At that time I was standing before a general court-martial which&127;&127; sentenced me to six months in he guardhouse, and then suspended the sentence". "Now," he said, "I'm a captain in that same Army, and I'm standing here as temporary commander of the camp in which I was disgraced." As I looked up, this old, hard-bitten, gray-headed former non-com had tears streaming down his face". Ike also referred to the camp as "old and abandoned".
Sounds like it had been there several years prior to 1917 doesn't it?

There is a good description of the camp on pages 138-152. He even describes using Big Round Top as a back stop for machine gun practice. "Ugh".


Incredible! Big Round Top used for machine gun practice. It seems that reverence for the field at Gburg is a more recent emotion, felt more by the GGchildren of the men who fought there, than by their immediate progeny! Having read a little more about Camp Colt, I could not find anything specific about the naming of the camp (I don't have a whole lot of info about it in my library) but I think I have figured out what is going on here, now that I have reread the information more carefully. Evidently the camp that was first set up on the Codori farm was the infantry training facility - just as the portion of the report I quoted so obviously states. This camp was the one created in May 1917, and it had no name. The camp was left vacant by December of 1917. The following year - 1918 - the same area was used as the tank training area, and it is at that time I suspect, that the Camp Colt designation was assigned.

Your reference you cited from your book on Ike really IS confounding! I don't know what to make of that.

I just checked Storrick: Gettysburg Battle and Battlefield, and found a one paragraph reference to the camp on pg 134-5. He doesn't say much about Camp Colt, I have NEVER seen any other reference to yet-earlier established encampment. Not that that means so much, but I find it difficult to believe that there was an earlier base established here. Guess I am just going to have to find the rest of the reports from 1905 to 1917 to check on that, but I am skeptical. Of course, I am also at a loss to explain your citation. Very odd. A visit to the NPS library seems to be in order here.

&127; Speaking of 'non-traditional usage' of the battlefield in the same breath as the NPS library also brings to mind this item: While browsing the NPS library two summers ago, Dennis hauled out a folder in the verticle files showing the location and data about a WW2 German prisoner of war camp on the battlefield. It was across the Emmittsburg road from the Bryan farm.&127;&127; The file contained news clippings about 2 prisoners who escaped from the camp. One of them made it all the way to New York as I recall. You would think that the government owned some other playground land, where they could build all this trash, rather than using the Gburg battlefield. Amazing.


Subject: Re: Camp Colt


I thought you both might be interested in the following excerpts from >From "A History of Adams County, PA 1700-1990" by Robert L. Bloom....

"For some days during the early spring of 1917 Adams Countians had recognized the possibility of involvement in Europe's War. On April 2nd, the "Gettysburg .

"Whether because of this petition or some other consideration, the War Department early selected Gettysburg's battlefield as a camp site. On June 2, 1917, "The Gettysburg Times" reported that 2,240 men of the Fourth United States Infantry had arrived with other infantry units to follow. All together, within a few months, 15,000 infantrymen passed through the camp located just south of town along the Emmitsburg Road".....

"Those who remember Gettysburg during the First World War can call to mind the famous tank-training school known as Camp Colt established on the battlefield. On March 19, 1918, an advance company of 232 men arrived from Camp Cody, New Mexico. Within a few days more came in. At its peak, Camp Colts's soldier population approached 8,000 men. Commanding the contingent almost from the beginning was Captain Dwight D. Eisenhower, who within a few months rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel." ...

"Named for Samuel Colt, famed inventor of the revolver which bore his name, this facility operated for seven and a half months, bringing to the community more regularly enlisted soldiers than at any time since the first days of July 1863.....p> "While the troops generally lived in tents at the camp astride the Emmitsburg Road, many officers resided in town. A number of them were housed in the then Alpha Tau Omega fraternity house on North Washington Street. Captain Eisenhower and his bride, Mamie, lived for a time in the house which still stands at 263 Springs Avenue."

Hope this helps in adding to your knowledge of Camp Colt.

Eileen Murphy

From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Camp Colt

Thanks much for your message on Camp Colt. I suspected that it was named after Samuel Colt but couldn't find anything to confirm it. It appears that the "many years ago" part of Ike's story may be bad memory or a little embellishment. We'll forgive him, if that is the case. BTW, it looks like part of your message may have been lost. I got it in two parts and the first part ends abruptly after "excerpts from" and the second part starts with "For some days". Did we lose the part that tells us the source? Also, I just noticed the log times in my in box show the first part coming in at 10:29 last night and the second part at 05:15 this morning. Looks like a busted message.


Col. John Bachelder

OK...I won't be embarassed anymore...I'll take it like a man:

Who was Bachelder????

If someone will answer, I'll be glad to lie down and let him/her walk on me.


From: "James F. Epperson"
I expect there are those who can give a more complete answer than I, but here goes.

Bachelder was a school teacher at the time of the battle, I think in a prep/military academy in the northeast or perhaps elsewhere in Pennsylvania. Almost as soon as the Battle of Gettysburg was over, he determined to become the formost authority on the battle. He went to Gettysburg within days of the end of the battle, and talked to many men from both sides who were still in hospitals there, and he even walked the battlefield with Rebel officers who pointed out where they had fought and what they had done, while it was still fresh in their minds.

Over the years, he -did- become the formost authority on Gettysburg, accumulating a vast correspondence with participants, etc. I have often wondered why he never wrote a complete history of the battle.

Jim Epperson
From: (Alexander Cameron)
John Badger Bachelder was, in his day, the expert on the battle of Gettysburg. He was a member and officer of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association and Congress appropriated $50,000 for him to write a history of the battle. Bachelder was an artist, engraver and a cartologist. He received what was in essence an honorary title of Colonel which he used throughtout his life. He wanted to "wait for the great battle which would naturaly decide the contest; study its topography on the field and learn its details from the actors themselves, and eventually prepare its written and illustrated history." He joined the AOP, left it, and came to Gettysburg after the battle. He interviewed dozens of officers and completed the isometeric drawing that you can buy at the GB bookstore. He died before he wrote his book but he wrote a small guide book and was present at many of the veteran's reunions. The 3 volumes of letters to which we refer is a product of Bachelder's research. There is an excellent article on Bachelder in vol 3 of GB Mag by Richard Sauers.


From: (Alexander Cameron)
Subject: Bachelder

Jim Epperson wrote:

I have often wondered why he never wrote a complete history of the battle.

Jim, According to Saures, "His manuscript history was never published. The war department was not happy with the results of the $50,000 appropriation. The manuscript was eventually sent to Gettysburg NMP for reference purposes." Bachelder died on Dec 22, 1894 of pneumonia. Sounds like there is a manuscript at the park. I didn't know that.


For Scott Hartwig,

Scott, Is that right? Is there an unpublished Bachelder manuscript (other than the "papers") at the park?


From: Terry Moyer Subject: Bachelder

Although it is a lot to type, there is no better introduction to Bachelder than that appearing in the Introduction to the Bachelder Papers, published by Morningside bookshop. The most important passages excerpted from that intro. appear below:

John Badger Bachelder (1825-94), a New Hampshire-born artist with a minimum of military experience, was the most important historian of the Battle of Gettysburg in Nineteenth Century America. He arrived on the battlefield a few days after the armies had departed, and spent the rest of his life intimately connected with the battle, as well as the evolving park at Gettysburg.

...Bachelder decided to accompany the Army of the Potomac and await the decisive battle of the rebellion, hoping to be able to examine the topography, interview participants, and publish a written and illustrated history of the engagement.

After reaching Gettysburg, Bachelder studied the terrain via horseback, then drew an isometric map of the battlefield. He visited field hospitals around the town, interviewed wounded soldiers of both armies, and gained information that enabled him to mark on his map the positions of every unit engaged during the battle. Six different colors showed the positions of regiments and batteries for all three days of the battle, in a panoramic view of Gettysburg that was published in the fall of 1863.

Then after seeking permission from Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, Bachelder visited the Army of the Potomac's winter quarters in the Brandy Station area. He claimed to have spoken with the commanders of every regiment and battery in the army. THE RESULT WAS SEVERAL NOTEBOOKS OF FIRSTHAND ACCOUNTS of the battle as seen by Union officers.

After the war ended, Bachelder's obsession with Gettysburg continued: he announced reunions on the field; he accompanied veterans over the terrain and hammered numbered, wooden stakes into the ground to identify various locales pointed out to him by participants; and he maintained his artistic interest in Gettysburg... In 1863 Bachelder published a guidebook to the battle, which was well received by the public. His guidebook included a black and white, fold-out version of the isometric drawing. Three years later, the federal government published a set of three Gettysburg maps that Bachelder had compiled. Based on the 1868 survey by Gouverneur Kemble Warren, the maps contained positions of units for all three days.

&127; More important, Bachelder son became involved with the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association as a director (from 1880-81, and from 1883-94). Formed in 1864 to preserve the battlefield, the GBMA oversaw the acquisition of land as well as the erection of historical markers and monuments on its grounds. His knowledge of the battle earned Bachelder an appointment as Superintendent of Tablets and Legends; it was his responsibility to assure that all monuments contained accurate historical data. ...In June 1880, President Rutherford B. Hayes signed into law a bill that provided the sum of $50,000 to be paid to Bachelder to write a detailed history of the battle of Gettysburg. The finished product-comprised of some 2,550 pages-was sent to Washington in October 1886. The four bolumes were accompanied by 58 maps...

In May 1893, Secretary of War Daniel S. Lamont appointed Bachelder one of three commissioners who were to supervise the deparment's growing interest in marking and expanding the bg battlefield. Just two weeks before Bachelder's death on December 22, 1894, Daniel Eileen. Sickles had introduced legislation to authorize the War Department to accept ownership of the battlefield. Bachelder, who could see that the GBMA was unable to accomplish everything that it needed to do fully approved of Sickle's bill.

Tragically, Bachelder's reputation seemed to have died with him; he quickly disappeared into obscurity. His widow,...passed away in 1914; seven years later, her sisters...donated a large collection of Bachelder's Gettysburg material to the New Hampshire Historical Society.

The Bachelder Papers remained in the New Hampshire Historical Society for decades, unknown to and unused by historians of Gettysburg. They were rescued from obscurity by Dr. Edwin B. Coddington, a professor of history at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania. Coddington had an abiding interest in writing a fresh history of the battle.He began work in the late 1950s by searching out manuscript collections that had been little-used by previous authors.

Like other hisotrians, Coddington did not know anything about Bachelder. In a NY antique shop, Coddington's daughter found one of Bachelder's pamphlets...Coddington wrote to the historical society and received a reply two months later: Yes, the Bachelder papers were housed with them, but no one seemed to have ever used them, and the librarians had no idea how much material they contained. Dr. and Mrs. Coddington eagerly drove to Concord and spent three weeks examining boxes and bound bolumes. There, they found every historian's dream-an unused manuscript collection of vast importance to the subject at hand... The collection includes correspondence he received from veterans of both armies on various aspects of the battle, comments on his maps and isometircal drawing, arguments regarding the marking of Confederate positions, and other questions related to Gettysburg...The hundreds of letters in the Bachelder Papers consist primarily of missives to Bachelder from men who participated in the battle of Gettysburg. Most of these letters were written by Union officers...who described their recollections of the engagement. By the mid70s, some Confederate officers began to write Bachelder about their experiences at Gettysburg. A few officers copied their diaries and sent the transcriptions to Bachelder. These first-hand accounts cover the entire course of the battle...

I hope this answers your Bachelder question!

Hi Bill,
Dipping once again into Sauers intro to The Bachelder Papers, this is what I find, on page 13, Vol. 1:

"The Gettysburg National Military Park Library has several Bachelder items among the surviving GBMA material located there. The park library also has the War Department's copy of Bachelder's unpublished battle history." In Sauers' Gburg Magazine article (issue #3, page 119, footnote 34) he says: "There are two copies of this history. One, a rough draft in Bachelder's handwriting, is among his papers in the New Hampshire Historical Society. A typed draft is in the Gettysburg NMP Library."

As interesting as the Battlefield itself is, I find that once I alot a few hours for a visit to the GNMP library, I inevitably become engrossed in all the wonderful information there is to find in there. I usually end up spending the entire day inside the library. Wonderful stuff to dazzle and amaze the Gettysburg afficianado may be found there. Great reading.


From: (Scot Hartwig)
Subject: Bachelder

>Yes, we have John Bachelder's manuscript here at GNMP but don't rush to see it. The reason the War Dept. passed on it was because Bachelder, who had all of that incredible knowledge and information didn't use it... He instead used the Official Records and wrote a history which is no more useful than any other. A real disappointment.

There are precious few gems in the manuscript where he included notes of walks he took on the Battlefield with Meredith or Barlow, for example, but very little of the information he gathered is included.

The $50,000 did not go to waste however. The huge sum (at the time a small rural farm was worth about $1,000) left us with the enormously helpful Bachelder Papers, volumes of letters and documents, and hour-by-hour troop movement maps. Also, Bachelder was responsible for the location of most monuments and flank markers placed before about 1890.

Tom Desjardin, GNMP

Electric Railroad

from: bwells
Subject: Electric Trolley

I know that there was an electric trolley at Gettysburg Park at one time, but I would like to know more about it. What years was it in existence? Who operated it? What sections of the park did it CUT through? Are there any books that make reference to this? Sorry for so many question, but I can always count on members of this group for answers! Thanks

Brenda Wells

From: (MS EILEEN M MURPHY) Subject: Re: Electric Trolley


I've been fascinated with the electric trolley for quite some time now and have taken many of the GDG members on tours of the remaining railroad bed. Here's a quick reference from "A History of Adams County, Pennsylvania 1700-1990" by Robert L. Bloom you might find interesting:

".....Despite the adverse court decision of 1896, banning construction of an electric railway over portions of the battlefield, the Gettysburg Electric Railway Company had already circumvented it by employing a different route. The entrepreneurs located their route along the Emmittsburg Road and on July 13, 1893 began operations which continued for the next twenty-three years."

"Starting at the trolley car barn at the junction of North Washington and Railroad Street, the line ran southward to Chambersburg Street. Along overhead lines fed by electric power generated in the car barn, the cars turned left to the Square. From there they proceeded southward along Baltimore Street to the east gate of Evergreen Cemetery. The tracks then took the cars via Ziegler's Grove to the Emmittsburg Road where they turned southward to the Peach Orchard. From that point they continued southeast to the Devil's Den where they formed a loop."

"For the return trip the tracks led northward through the "Valley of Death" just west of Little Round Top. Another bend, in this instance eastward, brought them to the Round Top station of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway spur at the intersection of the Wheatfield and Taneytown Roads. The cars using this spur's two-and-a-half mile stretch, known locally as "The Round Top Branch" bore thousands of visitors to the battlefield between 1884 and 1916, especially during summer months. Using this spur, trolleys rejoined their own line just north of the Codori House along the Emmittsburg Road. They then proceeded via South Washington Street to the car barn terminal. In the summer the cars were "open trolleys", that is, without sides. During winter months "closed trolleys" served the transport needs of local residents but only as far south as the Evergreen Cemetery."

Alms House

javal says:

Hi Folks;
In doing research recently, I ran across a diary entry that puzzles me. A member of the 153rd regiment claims that he was wounded on the first day at the Alms House. Goes on to claim that he watched Picketts Charge from that location after it was turned into a hospital. This seems rather dubious to me. I would certainly appreciate input from someone who has a better knowledge of the landscape of the terrain contemporaneously. I'd like to verify this guys account before I cite him as a reference. So, the question - could you see the charge from the Alms House? (Eric, you might be a help here as it was the area of 11th Corps action on day one..:)...thanks.. Joe Avalon Mike VanHuss says: AHi Joe, Based on the terrain of the area around the Alms House your member of the 153rd would have had to have pretty good eyesight in order to view Pickett's Charge from there. Not only would he have to look through town he would also have to see through a few hills in order to view the charge from this area on the outskirts of town. So in answer to your question I don't think he saw the charge from here. Hope this helps. Mike VanHuss Joe, I assume you mean the 153rd PA, a unit in 11 Corps which was engaged on the first day. The Alms House was located NE of town, along the road to Harrisburg, and just south of Barlow's Knoll. The 15rd was in the 1st Brigade of Barlow's Division, and certainly was engaged in and around the Almshouse. However, it is impossible to see the field of Pickett's Charge from the vicinity of the Almshouse. The entire town lies between the Almshouse and the field, and on higher terrain than the Almshouse location. I suspect your diarist saw lots of movement to the south, and mistook that for the actual charge. Dave Powell On page 121 of harry pfanz's Gettysburg: Culps Hill and Cemetery Hill, he relates a story that trimble, lee and ewell went into the cupola of the almshouse to view the union line on 7/2 "at 9:00 AM perhaps or earlier than that". lee must have seen a good portion of the union line because he remarked "the enemy have the advantage of us in a shorter and inside line..." although it's difficult to know if the diarist saw much of anything..the view from the cupola may have allowed him to see the smoke from the battle and maybe catch glimpses of what was going on during pickett's charge. jim martin

John Rosensteel Collection (Nikki Roth-Skiles) says: Our local paper had a timely article the other evening considering the discussion about battefield preservation. Thought I would post some of the information. All quotes are taken from the "Lancaster (PA) New Era", Thursday, May 30, 1996. The name of the article was "Civil War Treasures Buried in a Museum Basement". It spoke of all the relics hidden away in the basement of the visitor's center: "It holds some of the most precious artifacts from the Civil War: worn leather shoes, soldiers' diaries, tintype photos of men posing stiffly in uniform, and other items plucked from the Gettysburg Battlefield just after the bloody, three-day conflict there finally came to an end on July 3, 1863. Here in unheated rooms, saddles ridden by Union troops make ghostly figures in the gloom; they're draped in white cloth designed to protect them from abrasive concrete dust that showers down from above. In a cramped hallway, paintings of Civil War officers hang unprotected on moveable screens while framed photographs of soldiers' encampments and battlefield scenes are stacked against each other and crowded into small cubbyholes. Newspapers dating back 130 years have been slipped into plastic sleeves and packed into boxes on nearby shelves. A spartan room, with no humidity controls to prevent rusting or mold, is neatly lined with almost 200 rifles, carbines and other guns carried by soldiers into the conflict." The article goes on to discuss the $43 million proposal in which the Cyclorama and the Visitors Center would be demolished and everything moved to a less sensitive spot. Since the federal government has repeatedly turned down requests for funding, the NPS is looking for financial partner(s) - which could be governmental or private; for-profit or non-profit; or local, regional or national. The search is scheduled to be done this fall. There was a separate small article on how the collection came about entitled "Teen Began Collection 2 Days After the Battle". For those of you who don't know the story, here it is in its entirety: "John Rosensteel walked onto the Gettysburg battlefield just two days after the three-day clash between Union and Confederate forces ended on July 3, 1863. A farm boy from outside of Gettysburg, Rosensteel joined other local residents who came to see the devastation left behind by the fierce battle that caused 50,000 casualties. As he walked across the bloody battleground, the teen began picking up items left behind by departing troops. He had amassed quite a collection of artifacts when his family moved to the Little Round Top area of the battlefield in the mid 1880's. At that time, the Rosensteels opened the Round Top Pavillion - and John's colection - to others. 'It was a combination museum and dance pavillion' says Paul Shevchuk, assistant curator at Gettysburg National Military Park. 'It was a popular stop on the trolley line.' The museum also included an ice cream parlor and restaurant, according to a recent article on the Rosensteel family featured in the spring newsletter of the Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg. Later, Rosensteel passed on the collecting bug to his nephew, George D. Rosensteel, Jr. George started his own collection when he was an 11-year-old water boy helping crews that were building roads on and around the battlefield. In 1920, John Rosensteel sold his nephew some property he owned on Cemetery Hill, where the National Park Service Visitor Center is now located. George immediately began building the Gettysburg Museum, to house his uncle's and his own collections. He also began supplementing the family's collection by purchasing other relics from around the country. George moved his family into the building, using the attic as living quarters. He erected a large sign over the entrance to his museum, which faced the National Cemetery, where President Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address. George's son, Joseph, conceived the idea for the museum's Electric Map, to teach visitors about the battlefield. The first version of the map opened in 1938. In 1963, Joseph produced a new map, which is still in use today. Over the years, the family built 14 additions to the museum. In 1971, George sold the property to the National Park Service and donated his family's collection of more than 30,000 relics to the service. Since then, the park service has added about 10,000 items to the collection. But it is deeply indebted to the Rosensteels and their donation. 'It's kind of a unique situation' Shevchuk said. 'The collection is nationally recognized but also represents the legacy of a family through three generations. It's 108 years of one family collecting.' Nikki Roth-Skiles ( says: Hello group, Michael Gallagher
Maryland Monument Discussion GDG
"Mack, John" says:

As a "newbie" to the discussion group, I'd like to add some info to the Monuments discussion.

The first monument erected at Gettysburg to honor a Confederate Army unit was a victim of "revisionism". On August 11, 1885 Veterans of the First Maryland Battalion C.S.A. requested permission to erect a monument on Culp's Hill at Gettysburg. Their request was approved by the Board of Directors of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association( GBMA) and endorsed by the Pennsylvania Department, Grand Army of the Republic. However, when the First Maryland Monument Committee submitted their design, the GBMA quickly demanded some changes.

First, The planned location of the monument was rejected. Veterans of the First Maryland chose a site within the Union breastworks on Culp's Hill, which they had captured on the night of July 2. The directors of the GBMA required that the monument be located outside the position of the Union breastworks and situated to face the breastworks.

The next set of required changes involved the planned wording on the monument. GBMA directors demanded that the plaque be changed form "...captured the line of works.." to "...occupied the line of works...". Finally, the GBMA felt that since there were two UNION First Maryland units at Gettysburg ( First Maryland Potomac Home Brigade Infantry and First Eastern Shore Infantry Regiment)ther might be some confusion. They ordered the unit name on the front of the monument changed to " 2nd Maryland Infantry C.S.A. " .

Although if you look at the back of the monument , the detail plaque reads " The First Maryland..." .

In spite of all these changes, the monument was finally erected. On November 19, 1886 over 2000 veterans, citizens and dignitaries attended the parade and dedication ceremony.

On October 25,1888 the State of Maryland held a dedication ceremony honoring five Maryland Union units that fought at Gettysburg. Each of these five monuments would bear an inscription not found on the Maryland Confederate unit monument -


From: Mack, John


Glad you enjoyed the information on Maryland's monuments. As for the source , most of the information came from "Marylanders at Gettysburg" by Dan Toomey - Toomey Press. The tidbit on the "..Loyal Sons.. " business came from Wayne Motts. He pointed this out to our tour group because we were from Maryland.

As for Ross and Moore, Moore was wounded four times during the fighting. He was captured and treated by his friends from Talbot County , Md. serving in the First Eastern Shore Infantry. That story was the inspiration for the new Maryland Statue by Lawrence Ludtke, on the Cyclorama Parking lot. BTW,the new Maryland statue is the only state memorial at Gettysburg dedicated to service in both armies.

On another note , maybe you could shed some light on another aspect of the Memorials . According to Toomey's book the State of Maryland paid $1000 for the sites on Culp's Hill, where the five Union memorials sit. Do you know who sold them the land. Was this the practice followed by all the veterans groups that placed monuments at Gettysburg?

John Mack

Hi John,

Maryland appropriated $6000 for their monuments, $1000 of which was paid to the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, the owners of the land on Culp's hill.

"In compliance with Section 3 of the Law, the Commission on the 21st day of July, 1888, paid to the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, through its Secretary, John M. Krauth, the sum of $1000"

They received for this sum a document from the GBMA, which stated in part:

"for and in consideration of the sum of one thousand dollars, appropriated by said Chapter 118, Laws of Maryland, aforesaid to the said Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, for the purchase of land upon which to erect said monuments, to lay out avenues leading thereto, and taking care of said monuments after their erection...the said association, by virtue of authority vested in its vice-president, doth hereby covenant and agree that they now hold, by a title in fee simple, the land so required, for the monuments of the First Regiment of Eastern Shore Infantry, the First Regiment of Potomac Home Brigade Infantry and the Third Regiment of Maryland Infantry, and that it will with all practicable speed, and within a period of two months, secure a similar title to all lands required for said Maryland Monuments. 1

Culp's Hill was one of the first parcels purchased by the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association:

"the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in 1867 appropriated the sum of three thousand dollars 'to be applied to the purchase of portions of the battle-grounds, and the general purposes for which said Association was incorporated,' and in 1868 a like sum for the same purpose, this being all that is was asked to appropriate.

This money was presumably used in the purchase of that portion of Culp's Hill upon which the breastworks were still standing, of East Cemetery Hill where Stewart's, Reynolds's, Ricketts's and Weidrick's batteries were posted, and where the lunettes or redans still remain, and also a small piece of ground on the slope and summit of Little Round Top, as these grounds were purchased during that period."2

It was customary for the State legislatures and Veteran organizations to appropriate money for the purchase of the land upon which their monuments would be erected, and then to convey title for that land to the GBMA after the monuments were dedicated. Another method often employed would be to deliver the money to the GBMA and allow the Association to negotiate and pay for the land.

Vanderslice in his History of the GBMA describes minutely the appropriations made by the various states for the placement of monuments upon the field. He takes care to mention the amount of money set aside by each State specifically for the use of the GBMA in caring for the monuments once the State placed them on GBMA property. It was a common courtesy and good manners to contribute something to the Association which would be charged for maintaining and caring for your monuments in perpetuity.

On page 299 of the history Vanderslice says the following concerning the monuments of Indiana:

"The State appropriated $3000 on March 5, 1885, for the erection of monuments, but never contributed to the Association or paid anything towards the purchase of ground upon which the monuments are located.

The monuments of this State are plain, and there seems to have been no effort towards originality or impressiveness."

He was obviously disgruntled. (Also see page 439 in Vanderslice's: Gettysburg Then and Now, for the same comment).

The information I had on the story of Sgts Ross and Moore came from one sentence of a speech given by Col. James Confederate. Mullikin of Easton, a survivor the 1st E.S. regiment at the dedication of the Md. monuments. Your story was more complete. Did this information come from the Dan Toomey book as well? And what material did Toomey cite as his sources for the story?

As you can tell, I like to have my information well documented. In fact, it was this characteristic of mine that caused Dennis Lawrence and I to meet at Gettysburg 3 years ago. But that is another story, best saved for the dogs and lies show on the night of the 2d.

BTW, my wife attended the dedication ceremonies of the new Md. Monument and brought home TWO dedication programs with her. I missed the dedication due to work, but I sure do like having the dedication programs in my 'monuments' collection!

Terry Moyer

1 State of Maryland Gettysburg Monument Commission, 1891, Printed by Wm K. Boyle and Son, Baltimore, pg 27 hereafter Md at Gettysburg.

Vanderslice, John M., Gettysburg a History of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, 1897, Phila. pg 296. hereafter Vanderslice.

2 Vanderslice pg 204-205


From: Mack, John

Terry, The information on the story of Sgts. Ross and Moore is on page 27 of Toomey's book - "Marylanders at Gettysburg". His citations for this portion of the battle are "The Report of the Maryland Monument Commission" ( Balt.1891) p. 5 , pp. 57-58,pp.93-94 and a newspaper story " When Talbot Boys Died Fighting Each Other" Star Democrat- Easton Md. 1974.

Thanks for all the information on the monument site purchases. Nice to know where the State is spending the Tax dollars - even if it was a hundred years ago.

BTW, the programs your wife received at the Maryland Monument dedication probably came from one of my scouts. I'm a Scoutmaster of a troop here in Maryland. Our Troop was on the staff of the Monument Committee. We were responsible for handing out the programs,and directing foot traffic. Each of us received Maryland Monument certificates from the Governor for our participation. As an additional reward, each scout wrote his name and address inside a Scout handbook. The handbook was placed in the time capsule at the monument. It's located in front of the monument under a small square of concrete.

To this day I still have parents and teachers tell me about the boys bragging about their role in the ceremony. Some of them have developed quite an interest in the Civil War. Our troop travels to Gettysburg at least once each year to do volunteer work. Quite a few of the Scouts and dads now know how to erect "Virginia worm fences". In fact , the weekend of "the muster" our troop will be camping in the McMillan woods. Some of the boys will be working and the younger ones will be hiking the battlefield earning the Boy Scouts Gettysburg patch.

"John M. Kelly"

The 1st Maryland CSA was a one-year (!!) regiment in the ANV, fighting in the Valley campaign, and being mustered out in late 1862. Some of the members went to other units in the Stonewall Brigade and to cavalry units, while the remainder of the units became known variously as the Maryland Line, the Maryland Battalion, or the 1st or 2nd Maryland Battalion. (In 1864, it became officially known as the 2nd Maryland Regiment.) This battalion-sized unit (eight companies) fought in "Maryland" Steuart's brigade (Johnson's Division) at Gettysburg.

On the evening of July 2nd, Johnson's Division attacked Culp's Hill. Three of the units arrayed against the Confederates on the Federal side (Lockwood's brigade) were the 3rd Maryland US, 1st Maryland Potomac Home Brigade (not a brigade but a big regiment), originally recruited as a garrison unit for Washington DC area, and the 1st Maryland Eastern Shore, recruited to specifically defend Maryland's Eastern Shore.

Harry Pfanz has an excellent description of the fight for Culp's Hill in his book GETTYSBURG-CULP'S HILL AND CEMETERY HILL, and there are other references describing the fighting such as W. W. Goldsborough's THE MARYLAND LINE IN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY, and Daniel Carroll Toomey's MARYLANDERS AT GETTYSBURG.

The fight for the Hill opened with Steuart's Brigade on the Division's (and the entire army's!) left with the Marylanders running up against Greene's breastworks manned by NY regiments. Since it was dark, supporting troops from the 1st NC fired at muzzle flashes, shooting into the 1st MD in error. The 1st, NC, 3rd NC, and the 1st MD occupied the first line of works, some of which were empty because of Federal troops sent away to help out III Corps on Meade's left. The Confederates stayed in the works for the rest of the night (from about 11 PM on). XII Corps artillery raked the 1st MD first thing in morning (about 4 AM).

Johnson was ordered to renew the attack, even though everyone in the division knew it was almost suicidal. Capt. William Murray led the battalion forward on the right across 200 yds of open ground almost to the breastworks, where he was killed nearly at the works. The 1st Maryland Potomac Home Brigade relieved the 29th PA which had just used its last rounds against the 1st MD CSA.

The Federal 1st MD PHB were ordered to charge the stone wall sheltering what remained of the 1st MD CSA, but this order was rescinded, and the unit was brought back to the Baltimore Pike, while Slocum brought up the 1st MD Eastern Shore in its place. The Eastern Shore boys stayed in the works fighting the rest of the day, learning from prisoners that they fought against the 1st MD Confederates.

In fact, Color Sgt. Robert W. Ross, of 1st Eastern Shore, was a cousin of Color Sgt. P.M.Moore of Company E 1st MD Battlion, who was wounded 4-5 times and captured by some his neighbors.

Losses for the MD units were:

Md. Battalion lost over 250 out of 400 (estimates vary)
1st MD PHB had 100 casualties in about 30 minutes
1st MD ES had 7 K, 22 W, & 7 M

The monuments to these units are on Culp's Hill, the Confederates actually having a monument built in 1884 by survivors of the 1st MD, the first Confederate monument on the battlefield. However, the Commission required that the monument be designated the "2nd Maryland" to avoid confusion with the two Federal regiments designated as "!st". Also, the monument was required to be placed at the point where the battalion broke through Federal defenses, not their most forward position, which is marked by a small marker about 100 yds further into Federal lines. The marker is distinctive in that some of the Battalion oldtimers later inscribed the 1st MD designation into the marker, in much smaller letters.

The 1st MD Eastern Shore monument is nearby.

The Culp's Hill summit Auto Tour stop has a picture of the charge of the "2nd Maryland" against the Union lines near George Greene's statue.

Regards, and Merry Christmas, and Happy Holidays to all,

Jack Kelly

Esteemed member Greg Mast

That the 1st Regiment N.C. State Troops was the perpetrator of a "friendly fire" incident on Culp's Hill seems clear enough, but the context of N.C. sources makes it seem that the victims were members of the 3rd Regiment N.C. State Troops rather than the 1st Maryland Battalion. After Pfanz's July 2 book was published, I tried (to satisfy my own curiosity) to outline the actions of the two Tar Heel regiments in Steuart's Brigade. Easily accessible sources proved sparse: the _OR_, regimental histories, and some postwar writings of Randolph McKim. Reviewing my notes, I find I wrote the following:

"The 1st North Carolina deployed skirmishers early in the morning of July 2, but most of the regiment remained inactive during the day, listening with growing apprehension, wrote Lieutenant Randolph McKim of General Steuart's staff, to the enemy "plying axe and pick and shovel" on Culp's Hill. About 7:00 P.M. Steuart's Brigade received orders to attack the "rough and rugged" lower part of Culp's Hill. The brigade, crossing Rock Creek, encountered stiff resistance on its right, but the left wing of the brigade swept into the Federal lines, gaining a substantial lodgment within the enemy fortifications. During this assault the 1st North Carolina was held in reserve. At the urging of Lieutenant McKim, General Steuart then ordered the 1st in to support their "struggling comrades" on the right. Guided by the lieutenant, eight companies of the regiment reached a position where a line of battle to its front could be seen. McKim shouted "Fire on them, boys; fire on them!" but an officer of the 3rd North Carolina quickly appeared and shouted that the troops were firing on their own men."

It appears from your post that I am mistaken in assuming that the 1st NC fired at the 3rd NC. I would be glad to learn what the Maryland memoirists, mentioned elsewhere in your post, had to say about this incident.

Greg Mast

Esteemed member "John M. Kelly"

Greg: You are probably not mistaken, since both regiments caught the "friendly fire". I quote from Goldsborough's THE MARYLAND LINE IN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY, p.104,

" the same moment, the Third North Carolina and the Second Maryland [i.e., 1st MD Battalion] received an enfilading fire from Green's New York Brigade, which was posted in an angle of the works, about three hundred yards to the right. The balance of Steuart's Brigade was on the other side of the ridge, and was not exposed to the fire at all. To make matters still worse, the First North Carolina, which was marching in reserve, believing they were being fired upon by the enemy, opened fire, by which a number of men in the two right regiments were killed and wounded."

The "two right regiments" were, of course, the 3rd NC and the 1st MD Battalion, so you are right in your original supposition.


Jack kelly

I see Mr. Kelly has already replied, but since I had already typed this I'm not going to let it go to waste!! :o)

"The regiments comprising Steuart's Brigade were assigned the following positions in line: Third North Carolina on the right; Second Maryland [formaly the 1st], Thirty-seventh Virginia, Twenty-third Virginia and Tenth Virginia, the First North Carolina being held in reserve. Finding that he was inclining to far to the left, General Steuart moved obliquely to the right, which movement brought the Third North Carolina and Second Maryland face to face with the enemy behind a line of log breastworks, and these two regiments received their full fire at very short range, for, owing to the darkness, the breastworks could not be seen; at the same moment the Third North carolina and Second Maryland received an enfilading fire from Green's New York Brigade, which was posted in an angle of the works, and about three hundred yards to the right. The balance of Steuart's Brigade was on the other side of the ridge, and was not exposed to the fire at all. To make matters still worse, the First North Carolina, which was marching in reserve, believing they were being fired upon by the enemy, opened fire, by which a number of men in the two right regiments [3rd NC and 2nd MD] were killed and wounded."

W.W. Goldsborough, "The Maryland Line."

W.W. Goldsborough was an officer in the MD regiment, and assumed command when Lt. Col. James Herbert fell wounded.

John Gross

Esteemed member "John M. Kelly"

Further on the Maryland vs. Maryland thread:

Rigby's Battery (Battery A, 1st MD Light Artillery, originally part of Purnell's Legion (in answer to my question a week or so ago), was part of the XII Corps artillery on Powers Hill. The battery took part in the shelling of Confederate positions on Culp's Hill early on the morning of July 3rd, meaning that they were probably shelling the 1st MD CSA.

The Third Maryland Infantry USA spent most of July 2nd on Culp's Hill, was then rushed to the Federal left to counter Longstreet's attack on III Corps early in the evening. The Third Maryland returned to Culp's Hill well after dark, took some incoming fire from Confederates holed up in the Third's former position, and fell back to await daylight. It was kept in reserve until after the fight on Culp's Hill died out, moving to its former position at about noon. It skirmished with the CSA until the end of the battle.

Dement's First Maryland Battery CSA and Brown's Fourth Maryland (Chesapeake Artillery) Battery were in Latimer's artillery battalion at its exposed position on Benner's Hill. The battalion opened on Cemetery Hill at about 4 PM with 20 guns, but the battalion was faced by Federal artillery of at least 40 guns, and the Confederates were in a wide open position. The results were predictable. Both Maryland batteries were smashed in short order, all of the First's guns disabled, and all but one of the Fourth's. In addition, the First lost 9 horses, 1 caisson, along with Capt. Dement, Lt.Roberts,10 enlisted men killed, and 32 EM's wounded- horrendous losses for a four-gun battery. The Fourth lost 6 EM's killed, 8 wounded, and lost half its horses. Although the Marylanders in Latimer's Battalion faced the Marylanders of Rigby's Battery A on Powers Hill, Rigby's guns only fired a few rounds with little effect because of the extreme range. Rigby, in turn, would have been out of Latimer's range for most of the battalion.

Cavalry units from Maryland also served at Gettysburg. The First Maryland Cavalry served with Ewell's Corps, where it was used as guides for the advance into Pennsylvania. During the battle, it was used as support for batteries by Ewell.

The Baltimore Light Artillery, 2nd MD Artillery, was with Cavalry Division ANV, and was on the York Road with Jenkins Brigade when attacked by Gregg's Federal cavalry, including the First Maryland Cavalry USA.The First Maryland was on the extreme right so was not involved in much of the action. The Baltimore Light Artillery was not heavily engaged.

One other note regarding the First Maryland CSA: Private Minion F. Knott of Company F, 1st MD Battalion CSA, is buried at the National Cemetery (Section C, #4) apparently dying of wounds after the battle, and assumed to be a Federal Marylander.


Jack Kelly

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